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All Chapter summaries for BUS 2090-1.docx

53 Pages

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BUS 2090
Saba Safdar

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Chapter summaries for BUS 2090Chapter 1 Summary What are OrganizationsAn organization is a social invention for accomplishing a common goal through group effort Therefore a business is an organization but so is a fraternity or sports team for exampleSocial Invention implies that the essential characteristic of an organization is the coordinated presence of peopleOrganizational Behaviour is about understanding people and managing them to work effectivelyGoal Accomplishment refers to the things a business desires to do such as surviveOrganization behaviour is concerned with how organizations can survive and adapt to changeGroup Effort refers to the work teams and short term project teams as well as general workplace friendships in the process of accomplishing workOrganizational behaviour is concerned with how to get people to practice effective teamworkOrganizational Behaviour refers to the attitudes and behaviours of individuals and groups in organizations Why Study Organizational BehaviourOB is Important o Certain issues in a business can be classified as accounting or marketing issues but underneath they are still OB ones as well as any choice made has some sort of impact on the people within the organizationOB makes a Difference o Why Because studies have shown it is getting harder to achieve competitive advantage through means like technology and financial resources The way to succeed is via successful management of employees and developing human resources OB can help with that Goals of Organizational BehaviourPredicting OB o We dont realize it but we predict behaviour every day how a friend will react to sarcasm or a professor to a request for a due date extension Learning to predict behaviour in the workplace can help us preventencourage it in the futureExplaining OB o In addition to predicting behaviour we want to know why it occurs For example why people are more or less motivated satisfied or prone to resign Much more complicated then prediction but necessary to effectively manage employeesManaging OB o Management is the art of getting things accomplished in organizations through others Managers procure and guide the use of physical and human resources and if OB can be predicted and explained it can be controlled and managed resulting in a better workplace Early Preconceptions Concerning ManagementThe Classical View and Bureaucracy o Classical Viewpoint is an early preconception of management that advocated high specialization of labour intensive coordination and centralized decision makingEach department cares for only itself with orders coming from top management o Scientific Management is Frederick Taylors system for using research to determine the optimum degree of specialization and standardization of work tasks o Bureaucracy is Max Webersideal type of organization that included a strict chain of command detailed rules high specializationcentralized power and selection and promotion based on technical competenceHuman Relations Movement and a Critique of Bureaucracy o Began with the Hawthorne Studies which was conducted at the Hawthorne plant of Western Electric near Chicago in the 1920s and 30s that illustrated how psychological and social processes affect productivity and work adjustment o The Human Relations Movement was basically a critique of classical management and bureaucracy that advocated management styles that were more participative and oriented towards employees needs Critiqued the followingStrict specialization is incompatible with human needs for growthachievementStrong centralization fails to take advantage of creative ideas from lower levelsStrict rules lead to people adopting the minimum acceptable levels that the rules specifyStrong specialization causes employees to lose sight of the overall goals of the organization Contemporary ManagementThe Contingency ApproachThese days contemporary managers will see the benefits of both sides of the above argument and apply different rules to different departments eg the payroll dept needs to be more bureaucratic than the RD departmentNote that OB cant answer everything and in a given situation the answer is often It depends What do Managers doNo real answer because it depends but several studies have come up with the following o Managerial RolesInterpersonal Roles include the Figurehead role making speeches entertaining clients the Leadership role selecting rewarding disciplining employees and the Liaison role maintaining contracts in and out of the organizationInformational Roles include the Monitor role watching to make sure their dept runs smoothly and for changes that need to be made the Disseminator rolerelaying new information or opinions to the employees and the Spokesperson role sending messages to the external environment eg annual reportsDecisional Roles include the Entrepreneur role turning problems and opportunities into plans of action the Disturbance Handler role dealing with employee conflict the Resource Allocation role decide how to use time money and resources and the Negotiator role manages negotiations with other organizations o Managerial ActivitiesRoutine Communicationgoing to meetings and handling paper workTraditional Managementplanning decision making and controllingNetworkinginteracting with those outside the organizationHR Managementmotivating and reinforcing disciplining and punishing managing conflict staffing and training employees o Managerial AgendasJohn Kotter studied the behaviour pattern of several General Managers and found a few things in commonAgenda Settingthey determined what they wanted to accomplish and how they were going to do it Always considering the people the agendawill affectNetworkingthey developed a wide informal network of contacts both in and out of the organization Helped to provide them with information and relationships relevant to their agendaThey used the network to implement the agenda and will search anywhere in the network for help high or low o Managerial MindsManagerial minds are ableTo sense that a problem existsTo perform well learned mental tasks rapidly eg sizing up a written contractTo synthesize isolated pieces of information and dataTo double check moral formal or mechanical analysis Do these projections look correct Some Contemporary Management ConcernsLocal and Global Diversity
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