FRHD 1100 Chapter Notes - Chapter 11: Hypodermic Needle, Cocaine Dependence, Methamphetamine

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Chapter 11: Drug Use, Misuse and Abuse
Understanding Drugs and Their Effects
-a drug is any substance that is taken to change the way you feel and function
-drug misuse is the taking of a drug for a purpose or by a person other than that for
which it was medically intended
-drug abuse is excessive drug use that is inconsistent with accepted medical practice
-many factors determine the effects a drug has on an individual
Routes of Administration:
-drugs can enter the body in a number of ways:
-oral ingestion:
-swallowing a tablet, capsule, or liquid
-most common way but do not reach the bloodstream quickly (30min)
-inhalation:
-enter the body through the lungs
-Injections:
-Intravenous Injection (IV):
-concentration form of a drug into bloodstream immediately
-Intramuscular Injection:
-slower more consistent diffusion of the drug administrated usually with a
hypodermic needle into muscular tissue
-Subcutaneous Injection:
-administrated into fatty layer beneath the skin that is absorbed more
slowly as little blood flow in tissue
-Inunction:
-anointing or applying ointment by rubbing, or apply small adhesive
patches containing a drug to the skin
Dosages and Toxicity
-effects of drugs depend on the amount an individual takes
-increasing the does can intensifies effects and effects may change at different dose
levels
-toxicity is the dosage level at which drugs become poisonous to the body causing
temporary or permanent damage
-drugs eventually broken down in liver by detoxification enzymes
Individual Difference in Response to Drugs
-each person response differently to different drugs depending on set or setting
-set is the internal environment or mind set- a person’s expectations or preconceptions
about using the drug
-personality, psychological attitude, and physical factors play a role
-setting is the external environment that a drug user is in (amount of people, noise,
lighting, type of room, and culture)
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Medications
-many medications relieve symptoms and help cure various illnesses
-improper medication use can lead to hospitalization and added health care costs
What Should I Know About Buying Over-the-Counter Drugs?
-Nasal Sprays:
-relieve congestion by shrinking blood vessels in nose
-used too often, the blood vessels widen instead of contracting causing more
congestion resulting in a complete loss of smell
-Laxatives:
-irritate the lining of the intestines and cause muscles to contract or tighten often
making constipation worse
-Eye Drops:
-make blood vessels in the eye contract
-overuse the blood vessels can expand making eyes look more red
-Sleep Aids:
-little research on their use and possible risks
-Cough Syrup:
-a “poor man’s version” of the popular drug ecstasy
Prescription Drugs:
-Non-adherence:
-dangers of not taking prescription drugs properly are recurrent infections,
serious medical consequences, and emergency hospital treatment
-drugs most likely taken incorrectly are those with no obvious symptoms, require
complex dosage schedules, treat psychiatric disorders or have unpleasant side
effects
-Physical Side Effects:
-serious complications include heart failure, heart attacks, seizures, kidney and
liver failure, severe blood disorders, birth defects, blindness, memory problems,
and allergic reactions
-Psychological Side Effects:
-changes in the way people think, feel, and behave
-any drug that slows down bodily systems can cause depressive symptoms
-any drug that speeds up the nervous system can cause agitation and anxiety
Drug Interactions:
-mixing drugs can cause potentially danger interactions
-read labels, avoid hot beverages, crushing capsules, and drinking with alcohol
Caffeine Use and Misuse
-most widely and psychotropic (mind-affecting) drug in the world
-a stimulant, it relives drowsiness, helps in performance or repetitive tasks, and
improves the capacity for work
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Substance Use and Disorders
-people using psychoactive (mood-altering) chemicals for centuries
-addiction refers to the compulsive use of a substance, loss of control, negative
consequences, and denial
Dependence:
-psychological dependence and feel strong cravings for a drug because it produces
pleasurable feelings or relieves stress and anxiety
-physical dependence occurs when a person develops tolerance to the effect of a drug
and needs larger and larger doses to achieve intoxication or another desired effect
Abuse:
-continue to use drug despite awareness of persistent or repeated social, occupational,
psychological, or physical problems related to drug use, or they use drugs in dangerous
ways or situations
Intoxication and Withdrawal:
-intoxication refers to maladaptive behavioural, psychological, and physiological
changes that occur as a result of substance use
-withdrawal is the development of symptoms that cause significant psychological and
physical distress when an individual reduces or stops drug use
Polyabuse:
-polyabuse is when users prefer a certain type of drug but also use several others
-more drugs anyone uses, greater the side effects, complications and life-threating
complications
Concurrent Disorders:
-concurrent disorder is a situation where a person has both a mental health and
substance abuse problem
-often experience high unemployment, social anxiety and homelessness
What Causes Drug Dependence and Abuse?
-inherited body chemistry
-genetic factors
-sensitivity to drugs
Biology of Dependence:
-brain disease triggered by frequent use of drug that change the biochemistry and
anatomy of neurons and alter the way they work
-certain mood altering substances and experiences trigger a rise in a brain chemical
called dopamine, which is associated with feelings of satisfaction and euphoria
-brain chemical, one of the crucial messengers that link nerve cells in the brain, rises
during any pleasurable experience
-addictive drugs impact dopamine and its receptors by changing the pathway within the
brain’s pleasure centres
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