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Chapter 1

FRHD 2040 Chapter Notes - Chapter 1: Anger Management, Divergent Thinking, Dramatization

Family Relations and Human Development
Course Code
FRHD 2040
Triciavan Rhijn

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Program Design for Children
Chapter 1
Developmentally Appropriate Practice:
Early Childhood: Birth to age eight (NAEYC)
Developmentally Appropriate Practice (DAP): Practice that is age and
individually appropriate for each child in a program
Practices not appropriate for young children would include…
o Timed test
o Focus on academic skill development through worksheets/workbooks
o A tight schedule that ignores a young child’s need to move physically
Behaviourist Theory:
Behaviour can be shaped by the response that follows any particular action
Stimulus-Response Theory:
o Reinforcements
o Punishments
o Operant Conditioning
o Extinguishing behaviours
Classical Conditioning:
o Learns to expect reward whenever stimulus is presented
Operant Conditioning:
o Behaviour precedes the reinforcement
Shaping Behaviour Components:
1. Targeting the desired behaviour
2. Fixing a behavioural baseline
3. Selecting reinforcers
4. Analyzing the task and sequencing the segments
5. Systematically applying the reinforcers
Maturationist Theory:
Children should be aloud to unfold
Experience plays less of a role in this point of view (vs. in the behaviourist
point of view)
Believe that each child’s needs develop according to a pre-determined
Constructivist Theory:
Jean Piaget:
o Assimilation: Fitting info into existing schemas or categories
o Accommodation: Creating a new category
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o Equilibrium: Balance achieved
o Disequilibrium: Imbalance between assimilation and
o Equilibration: Process of moving from disequilibrium to equilibrium
o Metaknowledge: Knowledge of either physical, social or logico-
Lev Vygotsky:
o Zone of Proximal Development: Gap between what child can do
independently and what he can’t do even with the assistance of
someone who is more skilled than he
Multiple Intelligences Theory:
Howard Gardner
1. Linguistic Intelligence
2. Logical-mathematical Intelligence
3. Spatial Intelligence
4. Bodily-Kinaesthetic Intelligence
5. Musical Intelligence
6. Interpersonal Intelligence
7. Intrapersonal Intelligence
8. Naturalist Intelligence
9. Existential Intelligence
Social Learning Theory:
Albert Bandura
Emphasizes imitation in children’s development
Modelling behaviour
Ecological Systems Theory:
Urie Brofenbrenner:
A child develops within a complex system of relationships and that all these
relationships are themselves influenced by multiple levels of the surrounding
Always changing
Theoretical Influences on Teaching:
One-to-one Correspondence: A child knows that each item he is counting
has only one number tag and that if two sets are equivalent numerically, then
the objects in one set can be matched to the objects in the other set
Theoretical Influences on Observations:
Depending on our theoretical orientation, we will look at examples of
children’s development differently
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