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Chapter 10

FRHD 2100 Chapter Notes - Chapter 10: Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection, Zona Pellucida, Aids

Family Relations and Human Development
Course Code
FRHD 2100
Tuuli Kukkonen

of 13
Chapter 10: Conception, Pregnancy and Childbirth
Zona Pellucida- The nutritious fluid surrounded by gelatinous layers of the chromosomes
in the ova.
Hyaluronidase- An enzyme that breaks down the zona pellucida to enable sperm to
penatrate, secreted by sperm that have reached the fallopian tubes, once a sperm is in it
thickens and locks other out
Infertility- Inability to conceive a child, usually only applies if over a year period
Sperm Mobility- self-propulsion and a measure of the viability of sperm cells
Autoimmune response- The production of antibodies that attack naturally occurring
substances that are incorrectly recognized as being foreign and harmful
Artificial Insemination- introducing sperm into the reproductive tract through means other
than sexual intercourse
Endometriosis- abnormal condition in which the endometrial tissue grows into the
abdominal cavity rather than falling out of the body during menstruation. abdominal pain
and can cause infertility
Lapraroscopy- medial procedure in which the laproscope is inserted through the navel
permitting the visual inspection of the organs in the abdominal cavity
In Vitro Fertilization- method of contraception in which mature ova are removed from the
ovary and placed in a lab dish with sperm
Gamete Intrafallopian transfer(GIFT)-sperm and ova are inserted together into a fallopian
tube, conception in the fallopian tube rather than lab dish
Zygote intrafallopian transfer(ZIFT)- combination of IVF and GIFT, sperm and ova are
combined in a lab dish, after fertilization the zygote is places into the mother fallopian tube
to begin the journey to uterus implantation
Donor IVF-variation of IVF where the ovum is taken from a woman and fertilized and then
injected into the uterus or fallopian tubes of another woman
Embryonic transfer- a method of conception in which a volunteer woman is artificially
inseminated by the male partner of the intended mother after which the embryo is removed
from the volunteer and inserted into the intended mothers uterus
Intracytoplasmic sperm injection-a single sperm is injected directly into an ovum
Surrogate mother- artificially inseminated by the husband of the infertile woman and
carries the baby to term
Human chorionic gonadotropin- hormone produced by women shortly after conception
which stimulates progesterone, HCG is a hormone in pregnant women’s urine
Morning sickness- nausea, food aversions, vomiting associated with pregnancy
miscarriage- a spontaneous abortion
germinal stage/period of ovum- period before the implantation in the uterus
Blastocyst-stage in embryo within the germinal stage at which the embryo is a sphere of
cells containing liquid
embryonic stage- the stage of prenatal development that lasts from implantation through
the eighth week and is characterized by the differentiation of major organ systems
amniotic sac-the sac containing the fetus
amniotic fluid- fluid within the sac that protects and suspends the fetus
placenta- an organ connected to the fetus by the umbilical cord that exchanges nutrients
and waste between the fetus and mother
umbilical cord- a tube that connects the placenta to the fetus
age of viability- the age at which a fetus can sustain independent life
teratogens- environmental influences that can damage embryo and fetus
critical period of viability-a period of time during which an embryo or fetus is vulnerable to
the effects of a teratogen
rubella-viral infection that can cause mental retardation and heart disease in an embryo
still birth- the birth of a dead fetus
acquired immunodeficiency syndrome(AIDS)- sti that destroys white blood cells in the
immune system leaving the body vulnerable to various infections
toxemia- a life-threatening condition that is characterized by high blood pressure
ectopic pregnancy- the fertilized ovum becomes implanted somewhere other than in the
rh incompatibility- condition in which antibodies produced by pregnant women are
transmitted to the fetus and can cause brain damage and death
fetal alcohol syndrome- maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy leads to
mental lags, characteristic facial features, smaller than average brain size
braxton-hicks contractions-so called false labor contractions that are relatively painless
transition-the point where the cervix becomes almost fully dilated and the head of the
fetus moves into the birth canal
episiotomy-surgical incision in the perineum that widens the birth canal, preventing
random tearing during birth
perineum-area between vulva and anus
lamaze method-childbirth method in which women learn about childbirth, breathing
patterns, pain control and have a coach during childbirth
caesarean section- a method of childbirth in which the fetus is delivered through a
surgical incision in the abdomen
transverse position- a crosswise birth position
preterm-born before 37 weeks
postpartum-after the birth
prolactin-pituitary hormone that stimulates production of milk
lactation- production of milk by the mammary glands
lochia-a reddish vaginal discharge that may persist for a month after delivery
the union of sperm and ovum
ova=x chromosome and sperm= x or y
200-400m sperms on average in each ejaculation, only 1 in 1000 get near ovum.
Many flow out of vagina due to gravity (unless woman stays prone), killed by normal vaginal
acidity, swim against current in cervix towards the fallopian tube. Half of which are in the wrong
tube. Only 2000 end up in the correct tube. Fewer make it to the last 5 cm due to the current from
the cilia.
Ova secrete chemical that attracts sperms which have scent receptors
fertilization normally occurs in a fallopian tube
Sperm thins zone pelucidase via secreting hyaluronidase. Once 1 sperm penetrates, the layer
thickens to keep out the rest of the spersm.
conception occurs as the sperm and ovum combine to form 23 new pairs, which carry genetic
Optimizing the chances of conception
Ovum able to fertilize 4 to 20 hours after ovulation and sperm are most active within 48 hours
after ejaculation. Specialists recommend that a couple seeking to conceive have intercourse once
every day or two during ovulation week.
Less frequent intercourse (36-48hrs) results in a higher sperm count. Man with lower sperm
count should wait 48hrs.
Basal thermometers: Just before ovulation, temperature dips slightly. On the day after
ovulation, temperature increases by 0.2 to 0.4 and it remains higher until menstruation.
Over-the-counter kits (more accurate): Analyze women’s urine for surge in luteinizing
hormone that occurs 12-24hrs before ovulation.
Vaginal mucus: Track vaginal lube which (usually thick, white, cloudy) becomes clear and
slippery just before ovulation
Lying on back with knees to face tp elevate pool of semen and prevent dripping out of semen.
Lie as still as possible for 30-60min after ejaculation to help sperm move toward cervical
Maternal and Infant Mortality
Maternal mortality: die during childbirth and pregnancy
Infant mortality: die within 5 years of birth
Data shows between there’s a link between empowerment of women in society
(measured by access to contraception and no. of years of schooling, female participating in
national government)
Ireland: 1 in 47000 mothers die. Women enjoy 18 years of formal education.
Afghanistan: 1 in 8 mothers die. Women enjoy 4 years education.
Life after teenage motherhood
Teen moms have a lower probability than their adult counterparts (adult moms) of completing
high school and post-sec education.