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Chapter 4

FRHD 3400 Chapter Notes - Chapter 4: Goal Setting, Faial Island, Interpersonal Relationship


Department
Family Relations and Human Development
Course Code
FRHD 3400
Professor
Carol Anne Hendry
Chapter
4

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Chapter 4 Observation Skills
Are you a good observer?
o Observation is the act of watching carefully and intentionally with the purpose of
understanding behaviour
Through observation, you get to know the client and what is conveyed by his or
her verbal or nonverbal behaviour
Clients intentions, needs, meanings, and underlying emotions are often
conveyed through nonverbal communication
Some authorities say that 85% of communication is nonverbal
How something is said can overrule the actual words spoken
o Observation gives you key information to foster the relationship and facilitates empathic
understanding of the client
When and what kind of intervention is needed and how the client responds to it
Indicates environment change to facilitate client development
o If we are carefully attending to a single event or client topic, we can easily fail to notice
something that is even more important and miss critical nonverbal issues
Like false memories: the client might remember a negative event, but fails to
remember who saves them at the end
o Observation can enable you to learn as much about yourself and your counseling skills
as you do about your clients.
By observing inwards, you can tune into your own reactions and examine what
lies within
Self-awareness
o Looking at your way of being can be as critical as observing the client
Observing the Attending Patterns of Clients
o Important to start by noting your own and your clients style of attending
o Observe nonverbal behaviour
Clients may break eye contact, shift bodily movement, and change vocal
qualities as their comfort level changes when they talk about various topics
Clients may cross arms or legs when they want to close off a topic, use
random alterations of eye contact during periods of confusion, or
increase stammering or speech hesitations when the topic is difficult
Jigglig legs, oplete od shifts, ad losig oe’s ars ost ofte
indicate discomfort
Hand and arm gestures indicate organization
o A person seeking to control or organize things may move hands
and arms in straight lines and point fingers authoritatively
o Smooth flowing gestures indicate openness
THERE ARE MULTICULTURAL DIFFERENCES IN NONVERBAL CUES
o Siegel’s stateets aout ager ight e opared to those of
sexual attraction
Desire dilation of pupils, widened eyes, glazed look,
slight blinking, indicating excitement
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Dilation of pupils usually means involvement
and interest, whereas contraction may mean
disdain or disgust, and even part of anger
o Observe verbal behaviour
Language is basic to counseling
4 dimensions useful for direct verbal observation in session:
Patterns of selective attention
Client key words
Abstract and concrete conversation,
I ad other stateets
o Observe Conflict, Incongruities, and Discrepancies
Out of your awareness of verbal and nonverbal behaviour will come an
increased ability to notice conflicts of many types
Stress comes from internal and external conflict
o Internal: indecision, guilt, depression, and anxiety
o External: interpersonal relations, cultural oppression, and work
o Individual and Multicultural Variations in Verbal and Nonverbal Behaviour
Each culture has different nonverbal cues
Turkey: move head forward for yes, raise eyebrows for no
Touching is different from cultures too
One study, which counted the average number of times friends touched
each other in an hour of talking in a coffee shop.
o English friends: 0
o French: 110
o Puerto Rican: 180
Smiling is a sign of warmth in most cultures, but in Japan, it indicates discomfort
Native people see eye contact as disrespectful, unless talking to the chief
In Nigeria, eye contact is considered intrusive, so looking at the shoulder
is more appropriate
Paul Ekman’s ork 7 is osidered the stadard for oeral
communication
You will find that many sessions start slowly, regardless of culture
o To help you being a session, be patient, have a good sense of humour, and a willingness
to disclose, share stories, and talk about neutral topics such as the weather or sports
Concepts in Action: Three Organizing Principles
o Non-verbal behaviour
Oserig a liets’ attedig ehaiour is etral
The oie of the therapist, regardless of hat he or she sas, should be
warm, professional, competent ad free fro fear Graa, 
Facial Expressions
Smiling is a good indicator of warmth and caring
o Assist in developing a relationship
Some things you may notice:
o The brow may furrow
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