HIST 1010 Chapter Notes - Chapter 11: Johann Tetzel, German Nobility, Reformation In Switzerland

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8 Aug 2013
HIST 1010
Chapter 11 Summary: The Age of Reformation, Pgs. 313-333
o Long-building, powerful religious movement began in Saxony Germany
Protestant Reformation challenged aspects of the Renaissance
o Reformation broke out first in Germany and Switzerland
o Martin Luther and his followers scorned the authority of ecclesiastical
landlords and ridiculed papal laws as arbitrary human inventions
o Diet of Worms 1521 German nobility presented the emperor with list of
102 oppressive church burdens and abuses said to be corrupting the care of
German souls
o Eyes of pope = heretical religious piety
o Thomas a Kempis Imitation of Christ semimystical guide to inner life
o Sale of indulgences had been repeatedly attacked before Luther came on the
o Permit people to buy release from time in purgatory for both themselves and
their deceased loved ones.
o Rulers/magistrates had little objection to their sale and might even
encourage it
o Sale of indulgences to raise money for new Saint Peter’s basilica in Rome –
Luther protested
Martin Luther and Germany
o Popular resentment of clerical immunities and ecclesiastical abuses spread
among German cities/towns
o Luther came to despise the phrase “righteousness of God” because it
demanded of him a perfection neither he nor an other human being could
o Indulgence remission of temporal penalty imposed on penitents by priests
as a “work of satisfaction” for their confessed mortal sins
o Indulgences were originally given to Crusaders who could not complete their
penances because they had fallen in battle
o Late Middle Ages became an aid to laypeople made genuinely anxious by
their fear of future suffering in purgatory for neglected penances or
unrepented sins
o Hal proceeds going to pope and half to Albrecht and creditors
o Famous indulgence preacher John Tetzel
o Luther posted 95 theses against indulgences on door of Castle Church in
Wittenberg (Oct. 31, 1517) protested especially with impression Tetzel
created that indulgences remitted sins and released unrepentant sinners
from punishment in purgatory
o 1520 three famous pamphlets by Luther
1) Address to the Christian Nobility of the German Nation urged German
princes to force reforms on the Roman church
2) Babylonian Captivity of the Church attacked the traditional seven
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