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Chapter 11

HIST 1010 Ch. 11 (pgs 313-333) Textbook Summary (F11)

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HIST 1010
Peter Goddard

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HIST 1010 Chapter 11 Summary: The Age of Reformation, Pgs. 313-333 o Long-building, powerful religious movement began in Saxony Germany – Protestant Reformation challenged aspects of the Renaissance o Reformation broke out first in Germany and Switzerland o Martin Luther and his followers scorned the authority of ecclesiastical landlords and ridiculed papal laws as arbitrary human inventions o Diet of Worms 1521 – German nobility presented the emperor with list of 102 oppressive church burdens and abuses said to be corrupting the care of German souls o Eyes of pope = heretical religious piety o Thomas a Kempis – Imitation of Christ – semimystical guide to inner life Indulgences o Sale of indulgences had been repeatedly attacked before Luther came on the scene o Permit people to buy release from time in purgatory for both themselves and their deceased loved ones. o Rulers/magistrates had little objection to their sale and might even encourage it o Sale of indulgences to raise money for new Saint Peter’s basilica in Rome – Luther protested Martin Luther and Germany o Popular resentment of clerical immunities and ecclesiastical abuses spread among German cities/towns o Luther came to despise the phrase “righteousness of God” because it demanded of him a perfection neither he nor an other human being could attain o Indulgence – remission of temporal penalty imposed on penitents by priests as a “work of satisfaction” for their confessed mortal sins o Indulgences were originally given to Crusaders who could not complete their penances because they had fallen in battle o Late Middle Ages – became an aid to laypeople made genuinely anxious by their fear of future suffering in purgatory for neglected penances or unrepented sins o Hal proceeds going to pope and half to Albrecht and creditors o Famous indulgence preacher John Tetzel o Luther posted 95 theses against indulgences on door of Castle Church in Wittenberg (Oct. 31, 1517) – protested especially with impression Tetzel created that indulgences remitted sins and released unrepentant sinners from punishment in purgatory o 1520 three famous pamphlets by Luther 1) Address to the Christian Nobility of the German Nation – urged German princes to force reforms on the Roman church 2) Babylonian Captivity of the Church – attacked the traditional seven sacraments 3) Freedom of a Christian – summarized new teaching of salvation by faith alone o Some cantons became Protestant, some remained Catholic o Zwingli was also widely known for his opposition to the sale of indulgences and to religious superstition o Zurich became the center of Swiss Refor
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