Textbook Notes (368,150)
Canada (161,680)
History (208)
HIST 1010 (54)
Chapter 16

HIST 1010 Ch. 16 Textbook Summary (F11)

5 Pages
120 Views
Unlock Document

Department
History
Course
HIST 1010
Professor
Peter Goddard
Semester
Fall

Description
1 HIST 1010 Chapter 16 Summary: The Transatlantic Economy, Trade Wars, and Colonial Rebellion o Austria and Prussia fought for dominance in central Europe o Great Britain and France dueled for commercial and colonial supremacy o Prussia emerged as a great power, Great Britain gained a world empire Periods of European Overseas Empires o 18 century – slave population of New World consisted almost entirely of a black population o Creation in the Americas of the slave-based plantation economy led directly to over three centuries of extensive involvement by Europeans and white Americans in the slave trade with Africa o 19 century empires were based on formally free labor forces though they still involved much harsh treatment of non-white indigenous populations o Europeans frequently treated other peoples as social, intellectual, economic, and racial inferiors Mercantile Empires o Navies and merchant shipping were they keystones of the mercantile empires o Treaty of Utrecht (1713) established the boundaries of empire during the th first half of the 18 century o Spanish governed Central America, islands of Cuba, Puerto Rico, Trinidad, and eastern part of Hispaniola (Dominican Republic today) o British Empire consisted of the colonies along the N. Atlantic seaboard, Nova Scotia, Newfoundland, Bermuda, Jamaica, and Barbados o To the French and British merchant communities, India appeared as a vast potential market for European goods – source of calico cloth and spices = much in demand in Europe Mercantilist Goals o System necessary for nation to gain a favorable trade balance of gold and silver bullion; regarded bullion as the measure of a country’s wealth o Wealth of one state might expand only if its armies/navies conquered the domestic/colonial territory of another state and thus gained the productive capacity of that area French-British Rivalry o France and Britain colonists quarreled endlessly with each other over the coveted regions of the lower St. Lawrence River valley, upper England, and the Ohio River valley o Other rivalries arose over fishing right, the fur trade, and alliances with Native Americans th o Heart of 18 century colonial rivalry in Americans lay in West Indies (jewels of empire) o West Indies plantations raised tobacco, cotton, indigo, coffee, and **sugar o Only slave labor allowed the profitable cultivation of these products during th th the 17 /18 centuries 2 Spanish Colonial System o Spanish control of its American Empire involved a system of government and a system of monopolistic trade regulation o Primary purpose of the Spanish Empire was to supply Spain with the precious metals mined in the New World Trade Regulations o Casa de Contratacion (House of Trade) in Seville regulated all trade with New World o Flota system – regulations prohibited Spanish colonists within the American Empire from establishing direct trade with each other and from building their own shipping and commercial industry o Spanish ships continued to transport precious metals and coins from the Americans to Spain through the 19 century Colonial Reform under the Spanish Bourbon Monarchs o War of the Spanish Succession (1701-1714) + Treaty of Utrecht (1713) replaced the Spanish Habsburgs with the Bourbons of France on the Spanish throne o Philip V (r. 1700-1746) tried to use French administrative skills to reassert the imperial trade monopoly to improve the domestic economy and revive Spanish power in Europe o Peninsulares – persons born in Spain o Expanding trade brought more Spanish merchants to Latin America o Creoles – persons of European descent born in the Spanish colonies Black African Slavery, the Plantation System and the Atlantic Economy th o Before 18 century, little/no moral/religious stigma was attached to slave owning/trading o After conquest for Constantinople 1453, Ottoman Empire forbade the exportation of white slaves from regions under its control > Portuguese began to import African slaves o Slaves used as personal servants or displayed because of the novelty of their color in royal courts or in wealthy homes o First within the West Indies and the Spanish/Portuguese o Became fundamental social/economic factor Africans Presence in Americas o Once encountered/settled New World, Spanish and Portuguese faced severe labor shortage; had no intention of undertaking manual work themselves o 16 century – Native Americans as laborers > disease killed hundreds of thousands of native pop. o Spanish and Portuguese turned to labor of imported African slaves o Major sources of slaves were slave markets on West African Coast from Senegambia to Angola West Indies, Brazil and Sugar o African slaves equaled/surpassed the number of white European settlers in what soon constituted multiracial societies 3 o Increasingly a marginal presence in the ever-expanding African slave-based plantation economy of the Atlantic seaboard, the Caribbean, and offshore islands o Slavery continued to expand its influence in Brazil and Caribbean through spreading cultivation of sugar to meet demands of European market o Close to 17 century – Caribbean islands were world center for sugar production th o Early 17 century - as many as 20,000 new Africans a year arrived in W. Indies as slaves o By 1725 – estimated that almost 90% of population of Jamaica consisted of black slaves o Newly imported African slaves were needed because the fertility rate of the earlier slave pop. was low and the death rate high from disease, overwork, and malnutrition o 18 century witnessed an enormous new African presence throughout the Americas Slavery and Transatlantic Economy th o 16 century – Portuguese and Spanish were most involved o Dutch supplanted them during most of 17 century o Late 17 /18 centuries – English = chief slave traders (French also) o European goods (esp. guns) were carried to African to be exchanged for
More Less

Related notes for HIST 1010

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit