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Chapter 16

HIST 1010 Ch. 16 Textbook Summary (F11)

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HIST 1010
Peter Goddard

1 HIST 1010 Chapter 16 Summary: The Transatlantic Economy, Trade Wars, and Colonial Rebellion o Austria and Prussia fought for dominance in central Europe o Great Britain and France dueled for commercial and colonial supremacy o Prussia emerged as a great power, Great Britain gained a world empire Periods of European Overseas Empires o 18 century – slave population of New World consisted almost entirely of a black population o Creation in the Americas of the slave-based plantation economy led directly to over three centuries of extensive involvement by Europeans and white Americans in the slave trade with Africa o 19 century empires were based on formally free labor forces though they still involved much harsh treatment of non-white indigenous populations o Europeans frequently treated other peoples as social, intellectual, economic, and racial inferiors Mercantile Empires o Navies and merchant shipping were they keystones of the mercantile empires o Treaty of Utrecht (1713) established the boundaries of empire during the th first half of the 18 century o Spanish governed Central America, islands of Cuba, Puerto Rico, Trinidad, and eastern part of Hispaniola (Dominican Republic today) o British Empire consisted of the colonies along the N. Atlantic seaboard, Nova Scotia, Newfoundland, Bermuda, Jamaica, and Barbados o To the French and British merchant communities, India appeared as a vast potential market for European goods – source of calico cloth and spices = much in demand in Europe Mercantilist Goals o System necessary for nation to gain a favorable trade balance of gold and silver bullion; regarded bullion as the measure of a country’s wealth o Wealth of one state might expand only if its armies/navies conquered the domestic/colonial territory of another state and thus gained the productive capacity of that area French-British Rivalry o France and Britain colonists quarreled endlessly with each other over the coveted regions of the lower St. Lawrence River valley, upper England, and the Ohio River valley o Other rivalries arose over fishing right, the fur trade, and alliances with Native Americans th o Heart of 18 century colonial rivalry in Americans lay in West Indies (jewels of empire) o West Indies plantations raised tobacco, cotton, indigo, coffee, and **sugar o Only slave labor allowed the profitable cultivation of these products during th th the 17 /18 centuries 2 Spanish Colonial System o Spanish control of its American Empire involved a system of government and a system of monopolistic trade regulation o Primary purpose of the Spanish Empire was to supply Spain with the precious metals mined in the New World Trade Regulations o Casa de Contratacion (House of Trade) in Seville regulated all trade with New World o Flota system – regulations prohibited Spanish colonists within the American Empire from establishing direct trade with each other and from building their own shipping and commercial industry o Spanish ships continued to transport precious metals and coins from the Americans to Spain through the 19 century Colonial Reform under the Spanish Bourbon Monarchs o War of the Spanish Succession (1701-1714) + Treaty of Utrecht (1713) replaced the Spanish Habsburgs with the Bourbons of France on the Spanish throne o Philip V (r. 1700-1746) tried to use French administrative skills to reassert the imperial trade monopoly to improve the domestic economy and revive Spanish power in Europe o Peninsulares – persons born in Spain o Expanding trade brought more Spanish merchants to Latin America o Creoles – persons of European descent born in the Spanish colonies Black African Slavery, the Plantation System and the Atlantic Economy th o Before 18 century, little/no moral/religious stigma was attached to slave owning/trading o After conquest for Constantinople 1453, Ottoman Empire forbade the exportation of white slaves from regions under its control > Portuguese began to import African slaves o Slaves used as personal servants or displayed because of the novelty of their color in royal courts or in wealthy homes o First within the West Indies and the Spanish/Portuguese o Became fundamental social/economic factor Africans Presence in Americas o Once encountered/settled New World, Spanish and Portuguese faced severe labor shortage; had no intention of undertaking manual work themselves o 16 century – Native Americans as laborers > disease killed hundreds of thousands of native pop. o Spanish and Portuguese turned to labor of imported African slaves o Major sources of slaves were slave markets on West African Coast from Senegambia to Angola West Indies, Brazil and Sugar o African slaves equaled/surpassed the number of white European settlers in what soon constituted multiracial societies 3 o Increasingly a marginal presence in the ever-expanding African slave-based plantation economy of the Atlantic seaboard, the Caribbean, and offshore islands o Slavery continued to expand its influence in Brazil and Caribbean through spreading cultivation of sugar to meet demands of European market o Close to 17 century – Caribbean islands were world center for sugar production th o Early 17 century - as many as 20,000 new Africans a year arrived in W. Indies as slaves o By 1725 – estimated that almost 90% of population of Jamaica consisted of black slaves o Newly imported African slaves were needed because the fertility rate of the earlier slave pop. was low and the death rate high from disease, overwork, and malnutrition o 18 century witnessed an enormous new African presence throughout the Americas Slavery and Transatlantic Economy th o 16 century – Portuguese and Spanish were most involved o Dutch supplanted them during most of 17 century o Late 17 /18 centuries – English = chief slave traders (French also) o European goods (esp. guns) were carried to African to be exchanged for
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