Chapter 10

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Human Resources and Organizational Behaviour
HROB 2010
Casey Cosgrove

Chapter 10: Servant Leadership Description • Servant leadership is an approach focusing on leadership from the point of view of the leader and his or her behaviors • Servant leadership emphasizes that leaders be attentive to the concerns of their followers, empathize with them and nurture them • Servant leaders put followers first, empower them, and help them develop their full personal capacities • They are ethical and lead in ways that serve the greater good of the organization, community and society at large Servant Leadership Defined • Greenleaf (1970) provides the most frequently referenced definition: ◦ Begins with the natural feeling that one wants to serve, to serve first. Then conscious choice brings one to aspire to lead... The difference manifests itself in the care taken by the servant – first to make sure that other people's highest priority needs to be served.. cont pg 220 • Servant leaders place the good of followers over their own self-interests and emphasize follower development • They demonstrate strong moral behavior toward followers, the organization, and other stakeholders • Servant leadership is sometimes treated by others as a trait Historical Basis of Servant Leadership • Greenleaf states that a servant leader has a social responsibility to be concerned about the “have-nots” and those less privileged • If inequalities and social injustices exist, a servant leader tries to remove them • In becoming a servant leader, a leader uses less institutional power and control while shifting authority to those who are being led • Servant leadership values community because it provides a face to face opportunity for individuals to experience interdependence, respect, trust, and individual growth Ten Characteristics of a Servant Leader 1. Listening. Servant leaders communication by listening first. They recognize that listening is a learned discipline that involves hearing and being receptive to what others have to say. They acknowledge the viewpoint of followers and validate these perspective 2. Empathy. Empathetic servant leaders demonstrate that they truly understand what followers are thinking and feeling. When a servant leader shows empathy, it is confirming and validating for the follower. It makes the follower feel unique. 3. Healing. Servant leaders care about the personal well-being of their followers. They support followers by helping them overcome personal problems. 4. Awareness. Is a quality within servant leaders that make them acutely attuned and receptive to their physical, social and political environments. Includes understanding oneself and the impact one has on others. This allows servant leaders to step aside and view themselves and their own perspectives 5. Persuasion. Being clear and persistent when communicating and trying to convince others to change. 6. Conceptualization. Refers to an individuals ability to be a visionary for an organization, providing a clear sense of its goals and direction. It equips servant leaders to respond to complex organizational problems in creative ways, enabling them to deal with the intricacies of the organization in relationship to its long-term goals 7. Foresight. Encompasses a servant leader's ability to know the future. It is an ability to predict what is coming based on what is occurring in the present and what has happened in the past. 8. Stewardship. Servant leaders accept the responsibility to carefully manage the people and organization they have been given to lead. They hold the organization in trust for the greater good of society 9. Commitment to the growth of people. Servant leaders are committed to helping each person in the organization grow personally and professionally. Commitment can take many forms, including providing followers with opportunities for career development, helping them develop new work skills 10. Building Community. Servant leadership fosters the development of community. They build community to provide a place where people can feel safe and connected with others, but are stil allowed to express their own individuality Building a Theory About Servant Leadership • It was accepted as a leadership approach, rather than a theory, that has strong heuristic and practical value • LOOK AT PAGE 224 TABLE & FIGURE 10.1 Model of Servant Leadership • Three main components: ◦ Antecedent Conditions ◦ Servant Leader Behaviors ◦ Leadership Outcomes • The model is intended to clarify the phenomenon of servant leadership and provide a framework for understanding its complexities Antecedent Conditions Context and Culture • Servant leadership occurs within a given organizational context and a participate culture • The nature of each of these affects the way servant leadership is carried out • Dimensions of culture will also influence servant leadership • Cultures influence the way servant leadership is able to be achieved • For example, in cultures where power distance is low and power is shared equally among people at all levels of society, servant leadership may be more common Leader Attributes • Individuals bring their own traits and ideas about leading to leadership situations • Some may feel a deep desire to serve or are strongly motivated to leadership • Others may be driven by a sense of higher calling • These dispositions shape how individuals demonstrate servant leadership • People differ in areas such as moral development, emotional intelligence, and self- determinedness and these traits interact with their ability to engage in servant leadership Follower Receptivity • It is a factor that appears to influence the impact of servant leadership on outcomes such as personal and organizational job performance • Follower receptivity concerns the questions “Do all employees show a desire for servant leadership?” No. • Some subordinates do not want to work with servant leaders • They equate servant leadership with micromanagement, and report that they do not want their leader to get to know them or try to help, develop or guide them • Meuser, Liden, Wayne, and Henderson (2011) found that when servant leadership was matched with followers who desired it, this type of leadership had a positive impact on performance and organizational citizenship behavior Servant Leader Behaviors • This is the core of the servant leadership process • These behaviors emerged from Liden, Wayne, et al. (2008) vigorous efforts to develop and validate a measure of servant leadership Conceptualizing • Refers to the servant leaders through understanding of the organization – its purpose, complexities and missions • It allows servant leaders to think multifaceted problems, to know if something is going wrong, and to address problems creatively in accordance with the overall goals of the organization Emotional Healing • Involves being sensitive to the personal concerns and well-being of others • It includes recognizing others problems and being willing to take the time to address them • Servant leaders who exhibit emotional healing make themselves available to others, stand by them, and provide them with support Putting Followers First • Putting others first is the sine qua non of servant leadership – the defining characteristic • It means using actions and words that clearly demonstrate to followers that their concerns are a priority • Including placing followers interests and success ahead of those of the leader Helping Followers Grow and Succeed • Refers to knowing followers professional or personal goals and helping them to accomplish those aspirations • Servant leaders make subordinates career development a priority, including mentoring followers and providing them with support • Helping followers grow and succeed is about aiding these individuals to become self-actualized, reaching their fullest human potential Behaving Ethically • Refers to doing the right thing in the right way • It is holding to strong ethical standards, including being open, honest and fair with followers • Servant leaders do not compromise their ethical principles in order to achieve success Empowering • Refers to allowing followers the freedom to be independent, making decisions on their own, and be self-sufficient • It is a way for leaders to share power with followers by allowing them to have control • Empowerment builds followers confidence in their own capacities to think and act their own because they are given the freedom to handle difficult situations in the way they f
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