Chapter 9: Frameworks, Values, and Bureaucratic Power
Intent of this chapter is to provide a framework for understanding the interactions of public servants with
others in the political process.
Public servants interact with a number of entities in the political process; these interactions can be
reduced to three basic types, each which is shaped by the exercise of power.
1. One type involves relations within an organization
2. Second type addresses relations between an organization and other entities within government
3. The final type sees appointed officials dealing with bodies existing outside government
Concept of Power: relational concept because of influence, control, and authority. “The capacity to secure
the dominance of owns values or goals”
Control and Influence- two forms of power
Control- refers to that form of power in which A has authority to direct or command B.
Influence: is more general and pervasive form of power than control. When B gives in to A’s desires, A
exercises influence over B.
Authority of position: When A has access to higher rewards, inducements, and sanctions necessary to
back up commands.
Internal and External Interactions:
Internal: activities within a department (interdepartmental) involving staff and line officials combining their
efforts to produce policy operations
External within government: covers relations between individual organizations and other bodies within
government. Issues can be so diverse that multiple agencies are affected, Excecutive, Judical and
External outside government: involves public servants going outside their government and interacting with
non-governmental organizations. Includes pressure groups, the media, and interested members of the
Public Service Values
An awareness of these values facilitates an understanding of the actions and behavior of public servants
in their various types of interactions.
Neutrality: Essential to distinguish between political neutrality, in the sense of non-partisanship and value-
neutrality, Public servants never neutral in value.
Accountability: involves concern for the legal means by which public servants can be obliged to answer
for their actions.
Efficiency: is a measure of performance that may be expressed as a ratio between input and output
Effectiveness: is a measure of the extent to which and activity achieves the organizations objectives Responsiveness: inclination and capacity of public servants to respond to the needs and demands of both
political institutions and the public
Representativeness: employees are drawn proportionate