POLS 1400 Chapter 10 & 3: Issues in Canadian Politics: Chapter 10 & 3 Summary Notes

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Chapter 10 Caada’s Exteral Eviroet: The Uited States ad the World
Brief Introduction
- This hapter details Caada’s slo ut stead asorptio ito the U“ sphere of ifluee
- 30% of Caada’s GDP oes fro eports to other outries
o 70% of those exports go to USA
- Globalization
o the process of interaction and integrations among the people, companies, and
governments of different nations
§ The process is driven by international trade and investment aided by
information technology
The Global Setting
Foreign Governments
- US policies are far more likely to affect Canada than those of other foreign governments
- European Union
o Ban Canadian imports on:
§ Seal products
§ Fur from animals caught on leg-hold traps
§ Restriction on certain lumber exports
- Bu Aeria
o US government often institutes in effort to prevent government funds from
flowing to foreign companies
§ Threat to well-being of Canadian economy
- China
o Massive imports to Canada of manufactured goods
o Canada exports a great deal of raw material
International Organizations
- Canada has joined many in effort to:
o Ifluee other outries’ poliies
o Expand external trade
o Promote joint objectives with other states
The United Nations
- Has always been central to Canadian foreign policy
- Which is:
o Canada has preferred to base its actions on multilateralism in this and other
international organizations
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o Multilateralism = acting with other similarly minded governments and
international organizations
- The UN’s oral suasio ifluee or pressure, ithout the use of fore is ofte eough to
make governments change their domestic policies
Leading International Organizations to Which Canada Belongs to
- United Nations (UN)
- World Trade Organization (WTO)
- North Atlantic Treaty Association (NATO)
o *for full list see page 205
WTO
- have power to require its members to change their trading practices
International Monetary Fund (IMF)
- foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade,
promote high employment and sustainable economic growth, and reduce poverty
G7, G8, G20 Meetings
- agreed to only the most general policy objectives
- Canada refuse to fund abortion in its initiative to improve the health of mothers in poor
countries
International Agreements
- Present opportunities and obligations, and provide a certain amount of constraint on
subsequent domestic policy making
Transnational Corporations and Globalization
- Transnational Corp = corporations operate in many countries, but are head quartered in one
state
- National borders are gradually becoming less and less significant
Principle Characteristics of Globalization
- Comprehensive free trade agreements
- Removal of state controls on corporate behavior
- Cross-border capital flows
- Worldwide corporate competition
- Mega-mergers of the largest transnational corporations
- Technology advancement
- Closure of transnational plants in developed countries and migration to developing world
- Immigration
- Increased cultural interaction
International Terrorism
- Terrorism sparks in increase in integrations between Canada and US military forces
o Iludes eefig up seurit easures alog U“-CAN borders
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- In Canada:
o Bill-C51 derived from two devastating cases of terrorism in Canadian borders
o It essentially makes it easier for police and the courts to imprison people who are
suspected of undermining Canadian security
U.S. Influences in Defence, Foreign and Border Policies
Canadian Defence Policy
1. The ai halleges to Caada’s seurit
2. The role of the Canadian Armed Forces (CAF) in addressing current threats and challenges
3. The resources and capabilities needed to carry out the CAF mandate
- Most significant aspect is the Canadian military mission in Afghanistan
o As this wind down Canada joined several other NATO countries
Canadian Foreign Policy
- Caada sees itself as a iddle poer that ephasizes ultilateral approahes i gloal affairs
o Prefers to work with many other states to achieve its foreign policies
- Canada has an impressive record as an international peacekeeper
- Concentration on
o State security
o Human security
o Peacekeeping
o Peacebuilding
- Canada only contributes to 0.7% of GNP to foreign aid
Canadian Border Policy
- Investing in border infrastructure to relieve border congestion
- US and Canada promised to share information and intelligence and coordinate the work of
enforcement agencies in addressing common threats
- 2005 passports enforced to cross US/CAN border as opposed to licenses such as drivers,
health etc.
- Canada had a difficult time persuading US to build the second bridge between Windsor and
Detroit
o Caada’s ai ilateral trade oetio
US Economic Influences
- Argual ore persuasie tha U“’s ipat o defee, foreig, ad order policy
- Affects:
o Investment
o Trade
o The environment
o Energy
o Labour Unions
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