Bureaucracy is dead-long live bureaucracy? term coined by vincent de gurney in 1745. Martin albrow"s modern concepts of bureaucracy include: bureaucracy as rational organization, organizational inef ciency, rule by of cials, public administration, administration by of cials, the organization, and as modern society. Weber was the rst to systematically study bureaucracy: believed there was 3 sources of authority: Traditional: right to rule or exercise authority is legitimated by such factors as heredity, religious beliefs, or divine right. Charismatic: based on outstanding personal characteristics of an individual. Legal or rational: legitimated by rules and regulations obeyed by both the rulers. Les, and decisions based on impersonal rules: hierarchical structure - arranged in a series of superior-subordinate relationships, with only one superior. Increased con dence in bureaucracy by establishing a regime of certainty in dealings. Sunday, april 9, 2017: importance of written les - written records of rules and decisions made should be maintained.