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PSYC1000 - Module 52

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PSYC 1000
Harvey Marmurek

Course: PSYC*1000 (DE) Professor: Harvey Marmurek Schedule: Summer, 2012 Textbook: Psychology Tenth Edition in Modules authored by David G. Myers Textbook ISBN: 9781464102615 Module 52: The Psychological Therapies Treating Psychological Disorders How do psychotherapy, biomedical therapy, and an eclectic approach to therapy differ? Philippe Pinel and Dorothea Dix gentler, more humane treatments, constructing mental hospitals. Since 1950s, the introduction of effective drug therapies and community-based treatment programs have emptied most of those hospitals. Psychotherapy: trained therapist uses psychological techniques to assist someone seeking to overcome difficulties to achieve personal growth. Biomedical therapy: offers medication or other biological treatments. Eclectic approach: using a blend of psychotherapies. Psychotherapy uses a trained therapist, biomedical therapy uses medicine and eclectic uses both. Psychoanalysis and Psychodynamic Therapy What are the goals and techniques of psychoanalysis, and how have they been adapted in psychodynamic therapy? Sigmund Freuds psychoanalysis (id-ego-supergo) Goals: to bring patients repressed or disowned feelings into conscious awareness. By helping them reclaim their unconscious thoughts and feelings and giving them insight into the origins of their disorders, he aimed to help them reduce growth-impending inner conflicts. Techniques: After discarding hypnosis as an unreliable excavator, Freud turned to free association. Free Association relax, sits out of your line of vision, say aloud whatever comes to mind, noticing you edit thoughts as you speak. Resistance mental blocks indicate resistance. Anxiety lurks, defending self against sensitive material. Interpretation insight offered by analyst. Transferring feelings a suggestion that might be offered emotions linked to other relationships Psychodynamic Therapy: doesnt involve much about the id, ego, and superego. Instead try to help people understand current symptoms. They focus on themes across important relationships, including childhood experiences and the therapist relationship. Patients meet with therapist face-to-face for a few weeks or months and explore and gain perspective into defended-against thoughts and feelings. Therapists may also help reveal past relationship troubles as the origin of current difficulties. Interpersonal psychotherapy, a brief (12-16 session) variation of psychodynamic therapy, has effectively treated depression. Although interpersonal psychotherapy aims to help people gain insight into the roots of their difficulties, its goal is symptom relief in the here and now. Rather than focusing mostly on undoing past hurts and offering interpretations, the therapist concentrates primarily on current relationships and on helping people improve their relationship skills. A typical psychodynamic therapist might have helped Anna gain insight into her angry impulses and her defences against anger. An interpersonal therapist would concur, but would also engage her thinking on more immediate issues how she could balance work and home, resolve the dispute with her husband, and express her emotions more effectively. Humanistic Therapies What are the basic themes of humanistic therapy? What are the specific goals and techniques of Rogers client- centred approach? The humanistic perspective has emphasized peoples inherent potential for self-fulfillment. Insight therapies. Humanistic therapists differ from psychoanalytic therapists in many other ways: Humanistic therapists aim to boost peoples self-fulfillment by helping them grow in self-awareness and self- acceptance Promoting this growth, not curing illness is the focus of therapy The path to growth is taking immediate responsibility for ones feelings and actions, rather than uncovering hidden determinants. Conscious thoughts are more important than the unconscious The present and future are more important than the past. Carl Rogers client-centred therapy, which focuses on the persons conscious self-perceptions. In this non- directive therapy, the therapist listens, without judging or interpreting, and seeks to refrain from directing he client toward certain insights. Believing that most people possess the resources for growth, Rogers encouraged therapists to exhibit genuineness, acceptance, and empathy. Hearing refers to Rogers technique of active listening echoing, restating and seeking clarification of what the person expresses (verbally and non-verbally) and acknowledging the expressed feelings. The counsellor listens attentively and interrupts only to restate and confirm feelings, to accept what is being expressed, or to seek clarification. Rogers conceded that one cannot be totally nondirective. But he believed that the therapists most important contribution is to accept and understand the client. Given a non-judgmental, grace-filled environment that provides unconditional positive regard, people may accept even their worst traits and feel valued and whole. Active Listening by paraphrasing, inviting clarification, reflecting feelings. Behaviour Therapies How does the basic assumption of behaviour therapy differ from those of psychodynamic and humanistic therapies? What techniques are used in exposure therapies and aversive conditioning? The insight therapies assume that many psychological problems diminish as self-awareness grows. Psychodynamic therapists expect problems to subside as people gain insight into their unresolved and unconscious tensions. Humanistic therapists expect problems to diminish as people get in touch with their feelings. Proponents of behaviour therapy, however, doubt the healing power of self-awareness. They assume that the problem behaviours are the problem, and the application of learning
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