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Chapter 5

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PSYC 1010
Anne Bergen

Chapter 5 Sampling and Probability Samples and Their Populations  Everything worth studying has a sample  A random sample is one in which every member of the population has an equal chance of being selected into the study o More likely to lead to a representative sample  A convenience sample is one that uses participants who are readily available Random Sampling  The safest way to collect a representative sample is by collecting a random sample  Random numbers often have strings of numbers that do not seem to be random o Hard to have random sampling in social sciences because its difficult to have a whole population to choose from Convenience Sampling  Convenience sampling is faster, easier, and cheaper and therefore seen much more than random sampling  Generalizability refers to researchers’ ability to apply findings from one sample or In one context to other samples or contexts o Also called external validity  Replication is the duplication of scientific results, ideally in a different context or with a sample that has different characteristics o Essentially do the study again  A volunteer sample is a special kind of convenience sample in which participants actively choose to participate in a study o Also known as a self-selected sample o When people sign up for a research experiment The Problem with a Biased Sample  Understanding the importance of a representative sample can help you reduce your own biases when encountering information in your own life Random Assignment  Random selection refers to a method of creating a sample for a population random ASSIGNMENT refers to a method we can use once we have a sample o Random selection is rarely ever used random assignment is used all the time Probability  Probable means how likely Expected Relative-Frequency Probability  Personal probability is the likelihood of an event occurring based on an individuals opinion or judgment o Also known as subjective probability  Probability is the likelihood that a certain outcome will occur out of all possible outcomes o Flipping a coi
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