Microstressors: everyday hassles catastrophic events: unexpected and affecting large numbers (ie. natural disaster) life event scales designed to quantify amount of life stress a person has experienced over given period of time. The stress response: appraisal of demands of situation (primary, appraisal of resources available to cope (secondary) Gate control theory proposes experience of pain results from opening and closing of. Health promotion and illness prevention: health psychology psychological/behavioural factors in prevention/treatment of illness, maintenance of health: health-enhancing behaviours: maintain/increase health (exercise, diet, safe sex, medical checkups etc, health-compromising behaviours: promote development of illness (smoking, fatty diet, unprotected sex) Hiv by high risk sexual/drug-abuse behaviours (ie. sharing needles) prevention approach. Substance abuse highly associated with other disorders large maladjustment. Multimodal treatments combine aversion training, stress management, coping- skills training, positive reinforcement for change. Motivational interviewing: engage own motivation to change these behaviours.