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PSYC 2310 (266)
Chapter 16

Psychology Chapter 16 Textbook Notes.docx

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PSYC 2310
Anneke Olthof

Psychology Chapter 16 Behaviour in a Social ContextConsistency distinctiveness and consensus information jointly influence whether we make a personal or situational attribution for a particular actThe fundamental attribution error is the tendency to attribute other peoples behaviour to personal factors while underestimating the role of situational factorsThe selfserving bias is the tendency to attribute ones successes to personal factors and ones failures to situational factorsAlthough our impression of people may change over time our first impressions generally carries extra weightStereotypes and schema create mental sets that powerfully shape our impressionsThrough selffulfilling prophesies our initially false expectations shape the way we act toward someoneIn turn this person responds to our behaviour in a way that confirms our initially false beliefAttitudes are evaluative judgmentsThey predict behaviour best when situational influences are weakWhen the attitude is strongAnd when we consciously think about our attitudeOur behaviour also influences our attitudesCounter attitudinal behaviour is most likely to create cognitive dissonance when the behaviouris freely chosen and has negative implications for our sense of selfworth or produces foreseeable negative consequencesTo reduce dissonance we may change out attitude to become more consistent with how we have behavedIn situations where our attitudes are weak and counter attitudinal behaviour doesnt threaten our selfworthWe may change our attitudes through selfperceptionCommunicator message and audience characteristics influence the effectiveness of persuasionCommunicator credibility is highest when the communicator is perceived as expert and trustworthyFeararousing communications may be effective if they arouse moderate to strong fear and suggest how to avoid the feared resultThe central route to persuasion works best with listeners who have a high need for cognitionFor those with low cognition need the peripheral route works betterA social norm is a shared rule or expectation about how group members should think feel and behaveA social role is a set of norms that defines a particular position in a social systemPeople conform to a group because of informational social influence and normative social influence
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