Textbook Notes (362,814)
Canada (158,058)
Psychology (3,256)
PSYC 2310 (255)
Saba Safdar (145)
Chapter 8

CHAPTER 8.docx

7 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Guelph
PSYC 2310
Saba Safdar

CHAPTER 8: SOCIAL INFLUENCE: NORMS, CONFORMTIY, COMPLIANCE, AND OBEDIENCE  Social norms= unspoken but shared rules of conduct in a formal or informal group  Conformity= the tendency to change our perceptions. It is a change in behaviour or beliefs as a result of real or imagined pressure from others (Kiesler & Kiesler). HOW DO SOCIAL NORMS INFLUENCE BEHAVIOUR  Miller & Mcfarland- ask participants to read article for a discussion (written incomprehensible). Completed survey > assumed 37% of other students asked researcher for help. No one did.  The power of social norms:  Influence values, beliefs and behaviours. Serve as helpful guides to appropriate behaviour. Descriptive norms (describe how people behave in a given situation). Injunctive norms (describe what people ought to do).  Salganik, Dodds and Watts- Simply knowing how many other people had downloaded a song influenced how likely others were to download it > social norms influence music ratings.  People more likely to acquire norms when they’re in new situations.  Callun & Harton- Uni students attitudes become more similar to those closest to them.  Errors in perceiving social norms:  Katz & Allport- Pluralistic Ignorance= type of norm misperception that occurs when each individual in the group privately rejects the groups’ norm but believes that other accept these norms.  Vorauer & Ratner- study shows how pluralistic ignorance can interfere with the formation of a relationship as each person assumes the other isn’t interested.  Darley & Messinger- misperceiving the thinness norm can lead to eating disorders.  The pressure to conform to social norms:  Krunglanski & Webster- pressure to conform is powerful because deviation from the norm often leads to experience of negative consequences.  Schachter- found people liked the ‘deviate’ least.  Janes & Olson- found that those who watched the tape that ridiculed the other person conformed to what they thought were the ratings of other students and rated the cartoon as very funny.  Goldstein- found 75% of guests who were asked to participate in new resources savings program helped by using their towels more than once.  Mutterperl & Sanderson- Telling uni students that other women on campus eat and weigh more than the former might believe > reduces symptoms of eating disorders. WHAT FACTORS LEAD TO CONFORMITY  Informational Approach;  Informational Influence= influence that produces conformity when a person believes others are correct in their judgements and the person wants to be right. Occurs in a new situation.  Sherif- used the autokinetic effect (when a stationary dot of light is shown on the wall in dark room dot appears to move even though it doesn’t). Study demonstrated private conformity= when people rethink their original views and potentially change their minds to match what the group thinks.  The need to be accepted > Normative Influence= the influences that produces conformity when a person fears the negative social consequences of appearing deviant and wants to be liked and accepted.  Asch- participants alone: <1% gave wrong answers, in groups: 23% gave correct answers, 77% gave at least one wrong answer, 32% gave 7+ wrong answers.  Asch- this study revealed public conformity.  MacNeil & Sherif- study of transition of norms from generation to generation; completing 30 judgement trials and keep replacing one of the confederates with a new norm. FACTORS THAT INCREASE CONFORMITY  Group Size;  Group of 4 better at increasing conformity than 2, but 17 is not better than 10.  Bassili- found people who held a minority opinion expressed their views less quickly.  Social impact theory= people we are close to have more impact on us.  Tafarodi- second generation immigrants tend to want to feel part of the wider society.  Standing alone;  Taking the lone deviant position. In Asch’s experiment when another person in the group gave the truthful answer the pressure to conform was reduced.  When a group appears unanimous it’s at its strongest.  Demographic Variables;  Varying characteristics of an individual, sample, group or population. I.e. age and gender.  Conformity at its highest in adolescence.  Women more likely than men to agree with others in group and less likely to dissent from group. But both are likely to conform in unfamiliar situations.  Guadagno & Cialdini- type of persuasion strategy used > women more influence by face-to-face.  Motivation;  Task Importance > easy tasks people don’t need to look to group members for answer, but do for harder tasks.  Nature of task (ambiguity and difficulty)  Individual differences THE POSITIVE ASPECTS OF CONFORMITY  Conforming to basic social norms is required if we want to live an orderly society > citizens are expecting a certain level of conformity.  Minority influence:  Moscovici- argues that minority influence the behaviour or beliefs of the majority > the key is consistency.  Dissenters are more effective if they are; independent thinkers, persistent and have authority. CONFORMITY ACROSS CULTURES  Versions of Asch’s experiments have been replicated in more than a dozen countries- findings:  Individualistic cultures % errors: British unemployed blacks 39%, Us students 37%, Dutch students 24%, British students 17%, Belgian students 14%.  Collectivistic cultures % errors: Indian teachers 58%, Japanese sports club members 51%, Lebanese 31%, Japanese students 25%, Kuwaiti students 29%,  Higher levels of inter-dependent self (those that identify highly with their group) > Increases conformity.  Triandis- Hunting and gathering societies and upper social segments of industrial societies are low in conformity.  Triandis- Agricultural societies and lower social segments of industrial societies are high in conformity.  Berry- Berry’s study: correlated the degree of independence (low conformity) with the sample’s position on an ecocultural dimension > he found a correlation of .70 between ecocultural dimension of self-reliance and independence or nonconformity. THE POWER OF MINORITY INFLUENCE  Minority Influence= a process in which a small number of people in a group lead an overall change in the groups attitudes or behaviour  Moscovici= (reversed the Asch paradigm by having minority of 2 confederates influence majority). Used 36 coloured slides > found minority influence is more lasting than the behavioural conformity produced in the studies on majority influence. Demonstrates differ
More Less

Related notes for PSYC 2310

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.