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Routes to persuasion.docx

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PSYC 2310
Saba Safdar

Routes to persuasion  Elaboration Likelihood Model o People focus on different aspects of a persuasive message based on their involvement in the message content  When thinking carefully about a message and are influenced by the argument, the central, or systematic route is used o Doing research and test driving a car before buying it  When people do not think carefully about the message they are influenced by superficial characteristics and use the peripheral or heuristic route to persuasion o Buying a car based on a flashy commercial Factors That Influence Type of Processing Used  Two distinct factors of influence o Ability to focus o Motivation to focus  When distracted (do not have the ability to focus), it is difficult to understand central messages that require greater processing skill, so peripheral cues are relied on o People will accept information and process the meaning later and decided if they’ll reject it o If interrupted after hearing a message (not given time to process) they’re more likely to falsely accept the information o They are not able to fully-form counter arguments o Even subtle differences in concentration (caffeine, being alert) can effect a persons perception  If you have the concentration, but are not interested or involved in the message you lack motivation o You will rely on peripheral cues which are associated with the context of a message rather than the content  Length of message, source of message, speed of delivery o Familiarity with a statement (common phrases) make a message more persuasive when one is not motivated to concentrate on meanings and choice o When a message is difficult to understand (length, complexity) people rely on peripheral processing  When messages are easy to comprehend, central processing can occur Which Route is More Effective?  Central and Peripheral processing are both effective methods of persuasion o Central  Messages are personal motivate us to pay attention (if we are able) o Peripheral  Less personal (process when distracted)  Attitude change based on central processing is longer lasting  Central may be more effective at times (above) but peripheral is effective as well (persuading a crowd) What Factors Influence Persuasion  Source of the message o Attractiveness  Being attractive and likeable make someone more persuasive  Your brain thinks that by engaging in the same behaviour as likeable/attractive people-you can become attractive and likeable too!  Likeable people are more persuasive vocally/visibly  Unlikeable people are more persuasive in writing  Suggests that the likeability of a person is an important factor o Similarity  You would actually be more persuaded to by a running shoe if a good friend of yours was wearing it, than if it was highly endorsed by Usain Bolt  Your friend is more similar to you-so you assume the shoe would work for you too  This is why advertisements try to feature someone close to their target audience  Messages presented by in-groups are more memorable  Persuaded by those we identify with  Even simply similarities (the author and I share a birthdate) can make an argument more persuasive o Credibility  A person who appears competent and trustworthy are more persuasive  Doctors quoted in adds for health products  Friends/ Best Friends can change your mind  If someone is trustworthy you will be persuaded more often because you do not question their motives  Ie. They are not getting anything out of the situation  Those going against their own self-interest are very persuasive (lack personal bias)  When info is received from a moderately credible source, after an audience has heard a very persuasive speech by someone with low credibility they are actually MORE persuaded than if they had only heard a speech form a high- credibility source  The more a piece of information is repeated, the more credible and persuasive it becomes  Sleeper Effect occurs when a message that is not particularly persuasive, become persuasive over time because people forget the source of the information  Content of Message o Length  The link between length and persuasiveness is complex  Long messages are effective if they are strong and processed centrally-but not weak and peripherally  Long messages that include weak/irrelevant information are not effective  Better to use a short concise effective statement o Discrepancy  Messages that greatly differ from people’s attitudes will usually be ignored  Cognitive dissonance  Audience o Demographic Factors  Late adolescents and early adults are most easily persuaded  Coveted by advertisers  University student more easily persuaded  Respond to authority  Middle-adults less easily persuaded as they are more sure of their ideas and knowledge  But are more persuaded by adds featuring long-term goals (“Make time for your loved ones”)  Men are more aggressive and direct when persuading people  Woman less assertive and use strategies to influence people  In a lab setting, however, it was found that there was a difference in self-report of persuasion techniques between the genders, but that no real difference actually occurred in behaviour  Gender differences are a part of influence strategy as the social expectations of males and
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