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Chapter 2

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University of Guelph
PSYC 2410
Anneke Olthof

Cognitive Psychology Chapter 2 IntroductionIn this chapter we lay a foundation regarding the brain and methods used to study the brainWe begin with an example of a bizarre syndrome that results from brain damage Capgras Syndrome Emotional responses are not active when certain objectspeople are seenRecognition of parents is there but parents are seen as imposters So not actually the parents because the warmth people normally feel towards their parents is missingThe lack of emotional responses leads to very bizarre delusions The Principal Structures of the BrainThe simplest fact illustrated by Capgras syndrome is that different parts of the brain perform different jobsResearchers began to realize this in the nineteenth century by studying the cognition and behaviour of patients with lesions to the brainPhineas Gage was one such famous patient In 1848 an explosion during the construction of a railway sent a tamping iron through his frontal lobes resulting in a variety of cognitive and emotional changesPhineas was a nice average guy with a kind personality who knew how to make decisions but his accident changed who he was and he could no longer make decisions He was completely changed and became an angrier more unpleasant personThe study of people with brain lesions also helps us learn about the functions of these brain regions in healthy peopleThis approach is referred to as the localization of functionEven for seemingly simple cognitive tasks multiple regions of the brain are involvedThe hindbrain sits directly atop the spinal cord First area in the brain that developed Controls rhythms of the heart and breathing Regulates levels of alertnessIncludes the cerebellum which
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