PSYC 2410 Chapter Notes - Chapter 1-5: Behavioural Genetics, Behaviorism, Cooperative Learning
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Chapter One Lecture:
•Scientific study of behaviour and the factors that influence it. (biological, individual
•Ex. Joke Scenerio: individual differences in humour (sex, culture, age)
oSome are unaware of differences (nature), some cultural expectations are
oTest experimentally & unexperimentally:
oTell jokes to samples of similar men & women (women<men?)
Are women less likely to find the joke funny?
Or do women find social ineptitude funny?
Under Representation of Women:
•Under representation in science, engineering & mathematics
•Issue of divided fields
•Ex. Harvard University President states: ‘fewer females have innate ability in these
oAccurate reporting? Misinterpretation? controversial≠wrong
o‘inate ability’ wasn’t only or most influencial factor mentioned.
oGap-top percentile: more boys than girls (avg: boys=girls, gifted: bays>girls)
Chapter One Textbook:
Nature of Psychology:
•Basic Research: quest for knowledge purely for its own sake.
oDescribe behaviour & factors that influence behaviour. (lab or real world.)
•Applied research: designed to solve specific practical problems.
ouses principles discovered through basic research to solve practical problems
•basic research used for applied research:
oRobers Cave- Jigsaw Classroom:
Boys camp- hostility between 2 groups. Competition breeds hostility.
Used activites that forced cooperation and made eachother dependent
on one another.
oJigsaw program: Applies Rober Cave techniques to classroom
Each child in multi-culture group contains piece of knowledge needed
Cooperative learning: liking & self esteem increased, predjudice
•4 Goals of psychology:
oTo describe how people and other animals behave
oTo explain and understand cause of these behaviors
oTo predict how people and animals will behave under certain conditions
oTo influence or control behavior through knowledge and control of its causes
to enhance human welfare
The Biological Perspective:
•focuses on the physical side of human nature (brain/biochemical)
othe mind is a spiritual entity not subject to the physical laws that govern the
oholds that the mind is not a separate spiritual entity. mind and body are one
and mental events are simply a product of physical events & chemical
•Luigi Galvani: discovered severed leg of frog could move using electrical currents.
•Karl Lashey: examined how damage to various regions in brain affected animals’
ability to learn and remember.
•Charles Darwin: proposed theory of evolution & natural selection.
•Evolutionary psychology: focuses on role of evolution in development of human
behavior and mental mechanisms. Believe biology determines behaviour, and
behaviour determines survival.
•Sociobiology: natural selection favors behaviours that increase ability to pass on
one’s genes (aggression, competition, and dominance in males ; cooperative and
nurturing tendencies in females). Biological factors shape behavior, cultural
orientation evolved brain structures in order to adapt to demands of social and group
•Behavioural genetics: how behavioural tendencies are influenced by genetic factors.
oEx. Breeding of winning fish – to create Siamese fighting fish.
oEx. Indetical twins- similar behavioural traits.
•views humans as information processors and problem solvers whose actions are
governed by thought and planning.
•Schools of psychological thought:
oStructionalism: the analysis of the mind through it’s basic elements (Wundt &
Focused on sensations and used ‘introspection-looking within.’
oFunctionalism: study the functions of conciousness not structure. (whys not
How mind processes info and directs behaviour, influenced by
oGestalt psychology: how elements of experience are organized into wholes.
(opposite of structuralism)
Insight: sudden peceptopm of a usefull relationship or solution to a
problem. (‘aha!’) (Kohler)
o(Piaget)- studied how children think/solve problems.