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PSYC 2410 (149)
Chapter 1-5

Fall 2010. includes summarized textbook notes as well as lecture notes of CHAPTER 1-5

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University of Guelph
PSYC 2410
Boyer Winters

22/11/2011 22:33:00 Chapter One Lecture: PSYCHOLOGY? Scientific study of behaviour and the factors that influence it. (biological, individual & environmental) Ex. Joke Scenerio: individual differences in humour (sex, culture, age) o Some are unaware of differences (nature), some cultural expectations are different. o Test experimentally & unexperimentally: o Tell jokes to samples of similar men & women (womengirls) Chapter One Textbook: Nature of Psychology: Basic Research: quest for knowledge purely for its own sake. o Describe behaviour & factors that influence behaviour. (lab or real world.) Applied research: designed to solve specific practical problems. o uses principles discovered through basic research to solve practical problems basic research used for applied research: o Robers Cave- Jigsaw Classroom: Boys camp- hostility between 2 groups. Competition breeds hostility. Used activites that forced cooperation and made eachother dependent on one another. o Jigsaw program: Applies Rober Cave techniques to classroom Each child in multi-culture group contains piece of knowledge needed by all. Cooperative learning: liking & self esteem increased, predjudice decreased 4 Goals of psychology: o To describe how people and other animals behave o To explain and understand cause of these behaviors o To predict how people and animals will behave under certain conditions o To influence or control behavior through knowledge and control of its causes to enhance human welfare The Biological Perspective: focuses on the physical side of human nature (brain/biochemical) Mind-body dualism: o the mind is a spiritual entity not subject to the physical laws that govern the body. Monism: o holds that the mind is not a separate spiritual entity. mind and body are one and mental events are simply a product of physical events & chemical processes. Luigi Galvani: discovered severed leg of frog could move using electrical currents. Karl Lashey: examined how damage to various regions in brain affected animals ability to learn and remember. Charles Darwin: proposed theory of evolution & natural selection. Evolutionary psychology: focuses on role of evolution in development of human behavior and mental mechanisms. Believe biology determines behaviour, and behaviour determines survival. Sociobiology: natural selection favors behaviours that increase ability to pass on ones genes (aggression, competition, and dominance in males ; cooperative and nurturing tendencies in females). Biological factors shape behavior, cultural orientation evolved brain structures in order to adapt to demands of social and group living. Behavioural genetics: how behavioural tendencies are influenced by genetic factors. o Ex. Breeding of winning fish to create Siamese fighting fish. o Ex. Indetical twins- similar behavioural traits. Cognitive Psychology: views humans as information processors and problem solvers whose actions are governed by thought and planning. Schools of psychological thought: o Structionalism: the analysis of the mind through its basic elements (Wundt & Titchener). Focused on sensations and used introspection-looking within. o Functionalism: study the functions of conciousness not structure. (whys not whats). How mind processes info and directs behaviour, influenced by Darwin. o Gestalt psychology: how elements of experience are organized into wholes. (opposite of structuralism) Insight: sudden peceptopm of a usefull relationship or solution to a problem. (aha!) (Kohler) cognitive development: o (Piaget)- studied how children think/solve problems. o Conclusion: solve problems not from past experiences, but specific stages of development unfold as a child matures. Cognitive approaches to psychological disorders: o (Ellis & Beck)- emphasized how distress & maladaptive behaviour caused by the way we think about situations. Not external situations. Artificial intelligence: develops computer models of complex human thought, reasoning and problem solving. o Use expert systems to provide better paths to learning. o Cell assembly: strengthed cells from repeated usage. Social Constructivism: reality is largely our own mental creation. o Groups of people socially construct reality o Ex. Israelis vs Arabs, male roles vs. female roles. Behavioural Perspective: focuses on the external environment in shaping & governing our actions. Behavior determined by life experiences and by stimuli in their immediate environment. British empiricism: root of behaviour perspective. All ideas & knowledge are gained empirically- through the senses. o (Locke) the mind is white paper void of all characters waiting to be furnished. o (Pavlov) involuntary learning. Dogs drooling when bell for food. Behaviourism: emphasizes environmental control of behavior through learning (Watson) o Proposed psychology was observable behavior. We are products of experiences, and behavior can be controlled by manipulating our environment. Behaviorists believe: we are who we are because of what weve learned. Discover laws of learning & performance. Skinner proposed that the mental events, images, and feelings were behaviors -not causes. Behaviour Modification: behavior change to increase human welfare. (increase positive behaviours, by altering environ. Factors that effect behaviours.) Cognitive Behaviourism: links behavioral & cognitive perspectives. o Environment affects our thoughts- which effects our behaviour. Learning experiences & environment give us info. we need to behave/think/problem solve.
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