Chapter One Lecture:
Scientific study of behaviour and the factors that influence it. (biological, individual
Ex. Joke Scenerio: individual differences in humour (sex, culture, age)
o Some are unaware of differences (nature), some cultural expectations are
o Test experimentally & unexperimentally:
o Tell jokes to samples of similar men & women (womengirls)
Chapter One Textbook: Nature of Psychology:
Basic Research: quest for knowledge purely for its own sake.
o Describe behaviour & factors that influence behaviour. (lab or real world.)
Applied research: designed to solve specific practical problems.
o uses principles discovered through basic research to solve practical problems
basic research used for applied research:
o Robers Cave- Jigsaw Classroom:
Boys camp- hostility between 2 groups. Competition breeds hostility.
Used activites that forced cooperation and made eachother dependent
on one another.
o Jigsaw program: Applies Rober Cave techniques to classroom
Each child in multi-culture group contains piece of knowledge needed
Cooperative learning: liking & self esteem increased, predjudice
4 Goals of psychology:
o To describe how people and other animals behave
o To explain and understand cause of these behaviors
o To predict how people and animals will behave under certain conditions
o To influence or control behavior through knowledge and control of its causes
to enhance human welfare
The Biological Perspective:
focuses on the physical side of human nature (brain/biochemical)
o the mind is a spiritual entity not subject to the physical laws that govern the
o holds that the mind is not a separate spiritual entity. mind and body are one
and mental events are simply a product of physical events & chemical
Luigi Galvani: discovered severed leg of frog could move using electrical currents.
Karl Lashey: examined how damage to various regions in brain affected animals
ability to learn and remember.
Charles Darwin: proposed theory of evolution & natural selection.
Evolutionary psychology: focuses on role of evolution in development of human
behavior and mental mechanisms. Believe biology determines behaviour, and
behaviour determines survival.
Sociobiology: natural selection favors behaviours that increase ability to pass on
ones genes (aggression, competition, and dominance in males ; cooperative and
nurturing tendencies in females). Biological factors shape behavior, cultural
orientation evolved brain structures in order to adapt to demands of social and group
Behavioural genetics: how behavioural tendencies are influenced by genetic factors.
o Ex. Breeding of winning fish to create Siamese fighting fish.
o Ex. Indetical twins- similar behavioural traits.
views humans as information processors and problem solvers whose actions are
governed by thought and planning.
Schools of psychological thought:
o Structionalism: the analysis of the mind through its basic elements (Wundt &
Focused on sensations and used introspection-looking within.
o Functionalism: study the functions of conciousness not structure. (whys not
How mind processes info and directs behaviour, influenced by
o Gestalt psychology: how elements of experience are organized into wholes.
(opposite of structuralism)
Insight: sudden peceptopm of a usefull relationship or solution to a
problem. (aha!) (Kohler)
o (Piaget)- studied how children think/solve problems. o Conclusion: solve problems not from past experiences, but specific stages of
development unfold as a child matures.
Cognitive approaches to psychological disorders:
o (Ellis & Beck)- emphasized how distress & maladaptive behaviour caused by
the way we think about situations. Not external situations.
Artificial intelligence: develops computer models of complex human thought,
reasoning and problem solving.
o Use expert systems to provide better paths to learning.
o Cell assembly: strengthed cells from repeated usage.
Social Constructivism: reality is largely our own mental creation.
o Groups of people socially construct reality
o Ex. Israelis vs Arabs, male roles vs. female roles.
focuses on the external environment in shaping & governing our actions. Behavior
determined by life experiences and by stimuli in their immediate environment.
British empiricism: root of behaviour perspective. All ideas & knowledge are gained
empirically- through the senses.
o (Locke) the mind is white paper void of all characters waiting to be
o (Pavlov) involuntary learning. Dogs drooling when bell for food.
Behaviourism: emphasizes environmental control of behavior through learning
o Proposed psychology was observable behavior. We are products of
experiences, and behavior can be controlled by manipulating our environment.
Behaviorists believe: we are who we are because of what weve
learned. Discover laws of learning & performance.
Skinner proposed that the mental events, images, and feelings were
behaviors -not causes.
Behaviour Modification: behavior change to increase human welfare.
(increase positive behaviours, by altering environ. Factors that effect
Cognitive Behaviourism: links behavioral & cognitive perspectives.
o Environment affects our thoughts- which effects our behaviour. Learning
experiences & environment give us info. we need to behave/think/problem