Textbook Notes (270,000)
CA (160,000)
U of G (10,000)
PSYC (3,000)
PSYC 2410 (100)
Chapter 8

PSYC 2410 Chapter Notes - Chapter 8: Echoic Memory, Long-Term Memory, Sensory Memory


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 2410
Professor
Dan Meegan
Chapter
8

This preview shows pages 1-2. to view the full 8 pages of the document.
CHAPTER 8: MEMORY
A Three-Component Model:
Suggests memory has three major components:
Sensory memory, short term memory and long term memory
These components may involve interrelated neural sites
Sensory Memory: holds incoming sensory information just long enough for it to be recognized
Composed of different subsystems called sensory registers
They are the initial information processors
Our visual sensory register is called our iconic store
The time course for visual sensory memory is very brief
The auditory sensory register is called the echoic store
Studied by asking participants to recall different sets of numbers and letters that are
simultaneously presented into their left and right ears via headphones
Echoic memory lasts longer than iconic memory
Short-term memory: holds the information that we are conscious of at any given time. Also
referred to as working memory because it consciously processes, codes and “works on”
information
Once information leaves sensory memory it must be represented by some type of code if
it is to be retained in short-term and eventually long term memory
Input becomes represented in your mind
These are called mental representations or memory codes
Mental images (visual encoding)
Sound code (phonological encoding)
Meaning of a stimulus (semantic encoding)
Patterns of movement (motor encoding)
The form of a memory code often does not correspond with the form of the original
stimulus

Only pages 1-2 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Ex. If you are reading something you are probably not storing images of how the letters
look you may for phonological or semantic codes
When people are asked to recall a list of words the errors made are often phonetic
This suggests that phonological codes play an important role in short term memory
Short-term memory can only hold a limited amount of information at a time
Depending on the stimulus most people cannot hold more than five to nine meaningful
items at one time
Without rehearsal the shelf life of information in short-term memory lasts about 20
seconds
By rehearsing information we can extend its duration in short-term memory indefinitely
Organization and Imagery:
Hierarchy enhances our understanding
It has visual organization
Greater possibility of using imagery as a supplemental memory code
Enhances people’s ability to remember words
Chunking: combining individual items into larger units of meaning. This helps aid in recall
It’s hard to remember random list of letters in order, but if we put them in chunks it
makes it easier for us to remember
Mnemonic devices
Refers to “the art of improving memory”
Any type of memory aid
Hierarchy and chunking are two types of mnemonic devices
Acronyms are the most popular
Puts things into meaningful units
Researchers say that they don’t aid in memory
They only do if you’re already familiar with the material
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Only pages 1-2 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Info is stored into long-term memory by verbal codes and non-verbal (typically visual)
codes
Method of loci: forming images that link items to places
Exposure and Rehearsal:
To really understand a concept we need to employ effortful deep processing
If you’re exposed to a stimulus without stopping and thinking about it, this represents
shallow processing
Maintenance rehearsal: The simple repetition of information
Most useful for keeping info active in short-term, working memory and help transfer info
into long-term
Deeper processing than elaborative
Elaborative rehearsal: involves focusing on the meaning of information or relating it to other
things we already know
Better for transferring info into long term
Putting short-term memory “to work”
We need to knock info out to make room for new info
The info ends up staying, that doesn’t get knocked out eventually becomes long-term
memory
They say short term is like the office of a busy librarian because it’s actively processing
different types of info and supports problem solving and planning
One model proposed we keep some info in auditory working memory (when you repeat
something mentally)
A second component, visual-spatial working memory
Allows us to temporarily store and manipulate images
Lastly a control process, central executive directs action, decides how much attention to
allocate to mental imagery and auditory rehearsal, calls up info from long term memory
and integrated the input
Long-term memory: our vast library of more durable stored memories
Capacity is unlimited and can last a life time
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version