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Chapter 4

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PSYC 2650
Roderick Barron

Cognitive Psychology Chapter 4 (pages 117-159) Paying Attention Selective Listening - Shadowing – participants hear a tape recording of someone speaking and must echo this speech back word for word while they’re listening to it - In most experiments the message to be shadowed, the attended channel is presented through stereo headphones, so that participants hear the attended channel through the right earphone. A different message – the unattended channel is presented in the left earphone, and participants are instructed simply to ignore this message. This overall setup is referred to as dichotic listening - Cocktail party effect – you’re at a party and you hear another group talking about your close friend, you start to pay attention to this rather than what you were first engaged in Perceiving and the Limits on Cognitive Capacity - Filter that shields us from potential distractors Inattentional Blindness - The failure to see caused by inattention has been dubbed inattentional blindness Conscious Perception, Unconscious Perception - Mack and Rock “There is no conscious perception without attention” - Two horizontal lines procedure Change Blindness - Change Blindness - observers’ inability to detect changes in scenes they’re looking directly at Early Versus Late Selection - According to the early selection hypothesis, the attended input is identified and privileged from the start, so that the unattended input receives little analysis (and so is never perceived) - According to the late selection hypothesis, all inputs receive relatively complete analysis. But it’s only the attended input that reaches consciousness, or it’s only the attended input that is remembered Two Types of Priming - Resources are needed to prime detectors and that those resources are in limited supply - By comparing these response times (or RTs) in the primed and neutral conditions, we can ask what benefit there is from the prime - By comparing RTs in the misled and neutral conditions, we can ask what cost there is, if any from being misled - High validity primes will therefore produce a warm up effect and also an expectation effect - Low validity primes produce only the warm up Explaining the Costs and Benefits - Expectation based priming is larger in magnitude than the stimulus based priming, leading to a greater benefit in the RT data - Expectation based priming takes longer to kick in: Stimulus based priming can be observed immediately after the prime; priming based on expectations takes roughly a half second to develop - Stimulus based priming appears to be “Free” and so we can prime one detector with out taking anything away from the other detectors - Expectation based priming does have a cost, when misled reveals the presence of a limited capacity system - Selective attention including the fact that while listening to one message you hear little content from other messages Chronome
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