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Chapter 2

Cognitive Psychology Chapter 2.docx

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University of Guelph
PSYC 2650
Dan Meegan

Chapter 2: Neural Basis for Cognition 9/18/2012 12:37:00 PM Capgras Syndrome - rare but accompanies Alzheimers and is sometimes observed in the ederly, but can result from various brain injuries people are fully able to recognize people in their life, but utterly convinced that they are not who they appear to be—the real person is kidnapped or worse - they insist there are slight differences between the imposter and the person - they have replaced, subtle changes in personality or changes in appearances - neuroimaging techniques were developed in the last few decades that allow researchers to take high quality, 3D pictures of living brains, without in any way disturbing the brains owners - one form of neuroimaging data comes from PET scans and these tell a great deal about the structure of the brain, including abnormalities in the brain tissue - one site of damage is in the temporal lobe, it disrupts the circuits involving the amygdala, which serves as an emotional evaluator - abnormalities in the right prefrontal cortex are also found Principal Structures of the Brain - the human brain weighs 3 to 4 pounds and contains a trillion nerve cells with each connected to 10,000 others, so a total of 10 million billion connections - the hindbrain sits atop the spinal cord and includes structures crucial for controlling key life functions, rhythm of heart beats are controlled here, and breathing, posture and balance, and alertness - the largest area of the hindbrain is the cerebellum-which coordinates are bodily movements and balance, it also plays a diverse set of other roles like spatial reasoning, discriminating sounds and integrating unput received from various sensory systems - the midbrain plays an important part in coordinating movements, including the skilled movements of our eyes and auditory info and pain - the forebrain is the most interesting, it surrounds the entire midbrain and most of the hindbrain, the cortex is the outer potion—the convolutions cover the brains outer surface, some of the valleys in between the wrinkles are grooves that divide the brain into sections, the deepest groove is the gitudinal fissure, running from the front to the back of the brain and separating the left cerebral hemisphere from the right, the hemisphere is divided into four lobes—the frontal lobe is right behind the fourhead, the central fissure divides the frontal lobes on each side of the brain from the parietal lobes, which are on top, the bottom edge of the frontal lobes are marked by the lateral fissure and below that are the temporal lobes, and at the back of the brain are the occipital lobes - subcortical (underneath the cortex) are the thalamus (relay station for sensory information going to the cortex), and underneath that is the hypothalamus, which is important to the control of motivated behaviours like eating, drinking and sexual activity - surrounding those are interconnected structures that form the limbic system—here are the hippocampus and amygdala, both located under the cortex in the temporal lobe, both are important for learning and memory - the integration of the left and right brain are possible with the commissures, thick bundles of fibres that carry info back and forth, the largest is the corpus callosum, both there are several other structures - a lesion (particular area of damage) on the hippocampus produces memory problems but not language disorders, a lesion on the occipital cortex produces problems in vision but spares the other sensory modalities, disruption on the left side of the frontal lobe, produce a disruption of language use and damage to the right side doesn’t have that effect - CT scans and PET scans take x-rays that study the brains anatomy - MRI and fMRIs are more common now - Fusiform face area (FFA) is an area that is highly responsive to faces and less to other visual stimuli - The parahippocampal place are (PPA) is a brain site that responds actively to places in view - Binocular rivalry is when the visual system is unable to handle both stimuli at once, or to fuse the stimuli into a single complex perception - BOLD signal (blood oxygenation level dependent) measures how much oxygen the bloods hemoglobin is carrying in each part of the brain and this provides a quantitative basis for comparing activity levels in different brain areas\ - The localization of function refers to figuring out which part of the brain does what job - Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) creates a series of strong magnetic pulses at a specific location on the scalp, causing a temporary disruption in the small brain region directly under this scalp area, in an otherwise normal brain, what functions are co
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