o To do this they must ignore the misguiding tilts of the frame and their
If the participant adjusts the rod so that it is leaning in the
direction of the tilted frame, then that person is dependent on
the visual field.
If the person places the rod upright ignoring the visual field,
and listen to their bodies, they are said to be independent of
o Field Dependent People:
Favour social sciences, education, attentive to social cues,
oriented toward others.
More interested in what others have to say.
o Field Independent People:
Favour natural sciences, math, and engineering.
More interpersonally detached.
Better able to screen out distracting information and focus on a
Application police officers who are high in field
independence tend to do better in shooting scenarios and car
- Pain Tolerance: people undergo the same physical stimulus but react quite
differently from each other in terms of the pain they report experiencing.
o Low Pain Tolerance: augmented pain they have a more amplified
nervous system; bright lights and loud noises
o High Pain Tolerance: reduced pain; much more dimmed down
o Reducer/Augmenter Theory: this term refers to the dimension
along which people differ in their reaction to sensory stimulation;
some appear to reduce sensory stimulation, whereas some appear to
o Clinical Example:
Method: Compared patients with Borderline Personality
Disorder to those with no diagnosis. Examined pain tolerance
when participants were calm & then when stressed
Main Finding: Patients with Borderline Personality Disorder
(BPD) reported less physical pain when calm AND when in
higher distress compared to those without BPD
Implication: May help to explain why some with BPD injure
more often when in distress.
Personality Revealed Through Interpretation
- Kelly’s Contributions
o Saw humans as scientists. People engage in efforts to understand,
predict and control the events in their lives.