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Chapter 10

Personality (2740) Psychology Chapter 10 Textbook Notes.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 2740
Professor
Stephen Lewis
Semester
Winter

Description
Chapter 10: Psychoanalytic Approaches: Contemporary Issues Repression and Contemporary Research on Memory False Memories – Some recovered memories turn out to be false or inaccurate, and are recanted upon further inquiry (“implanted” memories of things that did NOT occur) - However, we cannot say that all false memories are inaccurate because some pieces of information may be true, just like we can’t assume that an eye-witness testimonies are true just because the person was there at the time Imagination Inflation Effect - occurs when a memory is elaborated upon through imagination, leading the person to confuse the imagined event with events that actually occurred - It is accepted as a fact that humans have a constructive memory - Constructive Memory – memory contributes to or influences in various ways what is recalled, rather than referring to pristine and objective retrieval of facts from the past Confirmatory Bias – the tendency to look only for evidence that confirms their previous hunch and do not look for evidence that might disconfirm their belief Contemporary Views of the Unconscious - There are two differing views on the unconscious: o Cognitive Unconscious View – the content of the unconscious is assumed to operate just like thoughts in consciousness o Motivated Unconscious – Freud’s view - Subliminal Perception – in most cases, words or phrases are flashed in front of someone so quickly they are unable to distinguish them, however, when asked questions pertaining to the information, there is a greater reaction time to words or phrases that were flashed previously - Priming – makes associated material more accessible to conscious awareness than material that is not primed o E.g someone says the colour red, you think of roses, fire trucks etc. Ego Psychology - Id psychology – Freudian psychoanalysis o Focusing on the role of the Id in controlling urges and causing behaviour o Especially sex and aggression - Ego psychology – Erikson’s psychology o Erikson said that the ego was used for mastering the environment and that it was a very crucial part of understanding how people behave and why o Establishing a secure identity is seen as the primary function of the ego o Identity is an inner sense of who we are o Identity Crisis – refers to the desperation and confusion a person feels when he or she has not developed a strong sense of identity Erikson’s 8 Stages of Development - Psychosocial conflicts – Erikson believed that the nature of the conflicts at each stage of development had a social nature (whereas, Freud believed they had a psychosexual nature) - Stage model of development – implying that people go through stages in a certain order and that there is a specific issue that characterizes each stage - He believed that each stage represented a developmental crisis that needed to be resolved o Maintained the notion of fixation – meaning that if the crisis was not properly resolved, then personality development could become arrested and the person would continue to be preoccupied by that crisis in development Trust vs. Mistrust - When children are born they rely completely on people around them - They can either develop a trust for people (e.g think people are approachable, trustable and generally good and loving) OR if they were not cared for properly they may develop a pattern of mistrust for others, suspiciousness, estrangement, isolation, and social anxiety or discomfort Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt - Conflict arises around 2 years - Trying to answer the question “How much of the world do I control?” - Agood outcome is when a child feels a sense of control and mastery over things and develops self-confidence and sense of autonomy that lets the child explore and learn - If the parents are to strict or over protective the child may develop a sense of doubt or shame about the goals they are contemplating Initiative vs. Guilt - Conflict arises around 3 years of age - If all goes well, the child should develop a sense of initiative which leads to ambition and goal seeking - If things do not go well, children may become resigned to failure or to not even take the initiative to pursue goals Industry vs. Inferiority - Around age 4, children start comparing themselves with each other  leading to competition - If they are successful in things they choose to do they develop a sense of competence and achievement - This leads to a sense of industry – feeling as if they can work to achieve what they want - However, with enough failure experiences, children may develop a sense of inferiority – feeling that they do not have the talent or ability to go ahead in life Identity vs. Role Confusion - Occurs during adolescence, people start to ask “Who am I?” - There is lots of experimentation as this stage, trying on many different identities - Most people achieve some degree of consistent self-understanding - Most people will pass through a period of identity confusion o Identity confusion – which refers to not having a strong sense of who one really is o Rite of passage – usually a ceremony or ritual that initiates a child into adulthood o Some people develop a negative identity – an identity founded on undesirable social roles, such as a street gang member - Identity foreclosure – if a person does not have a crisis, or if he or she forms an identity without exploring alternatives, such as
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