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PSYC 2740 (173)
Chapter 6

Chapter 6

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University of Guelph
PSYC 2740
Stephen Lewis

Chapter 6For Freudians motivation is provided primarily by the unconscious conflicts inside a person Personology the study of human lives and the factors that influence their development with a particular emphasis on differences among individuals and their personality types Henry Murray believed that psychological needs were located in the unconscious but they could be studied in conscious thoughts and reactionsMurray believed that all experiences impact us including our experiences as a fetus and that experiences before language development become represented in the unconscioushabit system customary modes of behaviour that have become almost automatic and occur repeatedly without conscious thoughtMurray accepted the existence of the id ego and superego and believed they shaped the habit system Murrays descriptionsid contained not only the instincts described by Freud but also more acceptable instincts that reflected psychological needsnot always active and energized sometimes needs to be stirred upcan sometimes reflect irrational and inappropriate tendencies it also has a positive side and is responsible for fantasies faith and creative inspirations ego part of a broader ego system conscious and focused primarily on perceived goals aims and plans of actionsuperego mostly unconscious cultural byproduct of internalized expectations first goal is to inhibit antisocial tendencies second goal is to present cultural and religious norms as the highest goodMurray accepted the influence of the defence mechanisms of repression and resistance on a pilgrimage Murray met Christiana Morgan one of Carl Jungs patients and began a 40 year affair they were cocreators of the Thematic ApperceptionMurray went to Harvard with Gordon Allport They both emphasized studying the whole personMurray maintained that the whole person should be studied across their lifespan and not just at one point in time multiform method the practice of gathering data periodically over time in naturalistic settings by different peopleMurray acknowledged both the role of biologically inherited characteristics and environmental influence press the role of situational factors that operated like a pressure on the individual and contribute to hisher behaviouralpha press the actual situation as it objectively existsbeat press an individuals perception or appraisal of the situation thema the combination of press the environment and the personality factors that combine to produce regularities in behaviour reflects a single episodeepisodes may repeatedly follow each other in a sequence a complex episode and a complex thema Murrays definition of environment includes the physical biological and social dimensions Murray and Kluckhohn 1953 identified four types of determinants in personality development1 constitutional determinants genetic structures2 group membership determinants3 life role determinants 4 situational determinants although it is important to acknowledge the link bw culture and personality the influence of constitutional and life role determinants should not be forgotten Murray is considered a motivational theorist because he emphasized directionality he maintained that the most important thing when seeking to know a person is to discover the factors that determine the specific direction of mental verbal and physical activities For Murray behaviours are directed by motives and drives inside people Murrays definition of a need is a construct or hypothetical concept which stands for a force the physiochemical nature of which is unknown in the brain region a force which organizes perception apperception expectation intellection conation and action in such a way as to transform in a certain direction an existing unsatisfying situationfor Murray needs are internal abstract and hypothetical because they cant be directly observeda need is most evident when there is a recognizable deficit bw our current status or state and where we would like to be Behaviours and thoughts directed towards satisfying a need are thus designed to alleviate a deficiency that exists within the person needs emanate from the brain and reflect physiological structures a persons needs can be identified by analyzing1 aftereffects of behaviours2 the pattern of behavioural expressions3 the selection of avoidance of certain situations ie press
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