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Chapter 13

PSYC 3020 Chapter Notes - Chapter 13: Observational Learning, Psychopathology, Social Learning Theory

Course Code
PSYC 3020
Dan Yarmey

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PSYC 3020
Domestic Violence: any violence that occurs within family members. They tend to
occur in private settings. Historically, it was not subjected to effective legal
Intimate Partner Violence: Violence occurring between partners who are either
living together or are separated.
Types of Violence & Measurement
Violence varies in types and severity including: physical, sexual, financial and
emotional. The most common measurement scale is the Conflict Tactics Scale (CTS)
and revised (CTS2). They have found that women are more likely to engage in
physical aggression while men are more likely to beat up or choke. Within treatment
sample men are at higher rates of minor and severe physical violence. Those within
the community and at university, both sexes commit equal amounts.
Critiques of the CTS
- Some acts of violence are not precipitated by an argument and therefore they
may not be reported
- Does not include all potential violent acts
- Does not take into account the different contexts or consequences of the
same act for both sexes
- Does not assess motive for violence and therefore offensive violence is
treated equal to a defensive response
Others say that it is not so much the methodology but the fact that many researchers
are subjected to the patriarchy theory. We should focus on all violence not simply
Intimate Partners: A Risky Relationship
- 51% of women have reported at least one incident of physical/sexual
violence since the age of 16
- It was more comment in previous partners than current for those aged
between the ages of 25-34 than older couples (45+)
- Women experienced more severe forms of violence, for every ten cases, three
are injured
- Reporting to the police was to prevent the violence from occurring again
while the most common reason for not reporting was due to the fact that the
victim felt that it was a personal matter to try and resolve
- Aboriginals had higher rates than older persons
- More reports in the Prairies as there is a higher police/population quo
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- Female students are less likely to be perpetrators but 1/5 report physical
assault by dating partner (heavy factor is substance abuse)
Theories of Intimate Violence
Patriarchy: broad set of cultural beliefs and values that support male dominance
- Social Patriarchy
- Family Patriarchy
- Note: this depends on the country’s views of men & women within the
household. There are more indicators of violence in areas that have less
egalitarian views
- It does not predict which individuals within a system will engage in intimate
Social Learning Theory
Three main components: origins of aggression, instigators of aggression and
regulators of aggression.
Observational Learning: watching others perform certain behaviors
Three main components: family of origin, subculture the person lives in and
television violence
Social learning theory posits that for a person to acquire behavior it must have some
kind of functional value to themselves. Also known as reward and incentives.
Instigators: events in the environment that act as a stimulus for acquired behaviors.
Averse instigators produce emotional arousal while incentive instigators are
perceived as rewards to engage in aggression.
Regulators: consequences of behavior
External punishment: arrested for engaging in violence
Self punishment: felt remorse for engaging in violence
Dutton’s Nested Ecological Model
1) Macrosystem: broad sets of societal and cultural beliefs and attitudes
2) Exosystem: social structures that connect the individual to the wider society
3) Microsystem: immediate environment in which abuse occurs
4) Ontogenic: psychological and biological features of the individual
Why Do Battered Women Stay? (Statistics on pages 358-359)
Myths Include
- Masochist desire to be beaten
- Emotionally disturbed
- Violence is not as bad as she claims
- She is partially to blame for her victimization
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