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Chapter 1

Chapter 1, 2 HR psych

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University of Guelph
PSYC 3070
Deborah Powell

Chapter 1 Introduction to industrial/organizational psychology - according to CSIPO (CANADIAN SOCIETY OF INDUSTRIAL AND ORGANIZATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY) Industrial organizational (I/O) psychology- A field of both research and professional practice that aims to further the welfare of people by understanding the behaviour of individuals and organizations in the workplace, helping individuals pursue meaningful and enriching work, and assisting organizations in the effective management of their human resources. - I/O psychologists often share interests with health, social, and counselling psychologists. Also are strong in psychometrics, statistics, and research methods. - The broad definition of I/O psychology may cover tasks such as; - Task analysis - Determining knowledge, skills, abilities, and personal characteristics needed for certain jobs - Providing recommendations or/actually conducting assessments of potential employees - Assessing work performance and the motivation of employees - Above is only a partial list of activities—the role of I/O psych is continually expanding. - (Ex; newly emerging subfield of I/O psych) Occupational health psychology- a field of research, partially based in i/o psych and is concerned with the health and safety of individuals at work. - An important part of CISPO def. of i/o psych-- The scientist- practitioner perspective-the view that i/o psych focuses on both scientific research and applied professional practice. - Scientific research- drawing on theories and methods of psych to understand what’s going on in organizations and improve work practices in organizations. Utilizing surveys, experiments, quasi- experiments, to explain individual and organizational behaviour. - at the same time, i/o psychologists are applied scientists- that scientific work is informed by practice, many of the research questions addressed by i/o psychologists come from day-to-day experiences in organizations that are intended to solve common problems (e.g., how do we design non-discriminatory selection procedures, what is the best way to train computer programmers, how can we protect first line responders from the adverse effects of repeated traumatic exposure) - Considerable variation exists in how individual i/o psychologists enact their dual role as scientists and practitioners - E.x i/o psychologists- teaching proffessors, or in research will focus on the “science” side, geared more towards research and publication, than those employed by companies who will take the more practical approach. HISTORY OF I/O PSYCHOLOGY - I/O psychology is a creature of the twentieth and twenty first centuries. - Major developments in i//o psych all have occurred after the 1900s - In Canada i/o psych was slower to develop than the U.S, really emerged after WW2 THE EARLY YEARS - historians look at three major influences to the emergence of I/O psych : economic, social, and psychological - economically- there was a boom in industrial activity, around the turn of the 20 century, which resulted in a great interest in the notion of efficiency. The first 2 books on i/o psych dealt with increasing human efficiency in business. - Socially- growing acceptance of Darwinian evolution- changing the way individuals thought about society and community, protestant work ethic supported capitalism- making any theory promoting capitalism (like i/o psych) more widely accepted. - Psychology- was going through a revolutionary change, where more focus to the growth of the experimental method and focus on individual differences paved the way for i/o psych. Science was increasingly seen as the answer for all problems. - German psychologist Wilhelm Wundt; was interested in workplace topics, and his lab was the starting point for much of i/o psych. - Walter Dill Scott- trained under Wundt, moved to the U.S., most noted for I/o related problems from the application of psychological principles, to advertising and personnel selection. - Munsterberg- (most influential of the early i/o psychologists) was both a psychologist and physician; student of Wundt, taught at Harvard University, became the foremost promoter of applied psychology. Wrote 20 books- pioneered i/o psych, educational, and forensic psychology. WORLD WAR I - PROBLEM- The American military was faced with the problem of selecting and assigning jobs to an unprecedented number of applicants in the most efficient way possible. - SOLUTION- developed by Robert Yates (the then president of APA),the military used standardized intelligence testing such as : Army Alpha, Army Beta - Army Alpha- a measure of cognitive ability developed for placement of U.S. soldiers during WW1 - Army beta-for soldiers of poor literary skills, a nonverbal intelligence test developed for placement of U.S soldiers during WW1 - The success of the programs convinced many of the value of selection tests. - the new field of i/o psych was founded on the successful selection and placement of individuals in organizations - job analysis- a way of understanding job tasks and requirements through systematic analysis. BETWEEN THE WARS: BIRTH OF THE HUMAN RELATIONS MOVEMENT - Although i/o psychology was well established and focused on issues related to selection, training, and job analysis, - there was not much interest in issues related to employee moral, and group processes, or job attitudes. - Until the HAWTHORE STUDIES-The sentimental event that helped incorporate and expand I/o psychology to include employee moral, and group processes, or job attitudes. - Hawthore studies conducted by western electric company, were a series of studies- with the purpose of demonstrating that their light bulbs were better than the competitors. - Using their workplace as a lab they studied the effects of varying illumination on worker production - FINDING- productivity improved regardless of the change in working conditions - Ex. Increase in illumination= higher productivity, and decrease in illumination= higher productivity - one explination for this is called the Hawthorne effect- the suggestion that any intervention will have desired effect . - by paying more attention to the workers, the researchers inadvertently produced an increase in productivity OUTCOME- researchers were lead to think of other aspects of the workplace including; dynamics of small groups , job attitudes, studies of work related stress and wellbeing. WORLD WAR 2 - psychologists became involved in selection for specialized roles, such as aviation psychology program that focused in part on the selection of fighter pilots. - John Flanagan created the critical incident technique- a widely used technique of job analysis. He also became head of aviation psychology. - Assessment center- a widely used selection technique, originally developed to select potential spies - Psychologists went beyond selection techniques in ww2, they were involved in training, and optimal design of workplaces and equipment (ergonomics). POST WORLD WAR 2 - the booming economy, with demands for labour, meant that personnel selection, motivation, leadership became firmly entrenched in the normal operation of organizations. - Most influential event post ww2 was passage of civil rights movement in the U.S. 1964 - Act prohibits discrimination in employment on many grounds. - Also because of the baby boom, Job satisfaction, employee moral, job stress and motivation became very important. I/O CANADA - development of i/o psych in Canada lagged behind the U.S. - until WW2 there had been no significant presence of Canadian i/o psych. - The CPA Canadian psychology association began in 1938 just prior and in anticipation of ww2 , psychologists from UofT, Queen’s and McGill met with government representatives to discuss contributions of psychologists to war effort - As a result of these meetings, the Canadian Psychological Association was formed in 1938 (psychologists belonged to APA prior to 1938). - Related to war effort, Canadian Psychologists were involved in: - Pilot selection - creating the M test- a Canadian cognitive ability test developed during ww2 - the M-test was used for- Selection and placement of soldiers in army - Establishment of day care centre’s so that women could enter the workforce - Ed Webster-was the biggest contributor to the Canadian war effort, he’s most known for his influential work on the employment interview and shaped the entire field of personnel selection THE DEVELOPMENT OF CSIOP - The development of a completely separate section for i/o psych didn’t happen until 1972, the CPA separated into two sections applied and experimental. - In 1975, Gary Latham (University of Toronto) organized a special interest group in I/O Psychology within the applied division. - Quebec has their own version of CISPO called SQPTO they are basically the same, in terms of their goal to promote I/O psych but they, act separately from each other with little overlap. CURENT AND PROJECTED TRENDS INFLUENCING PSYCHOLOGY - throughout history i/o psychology, the field had been defined by its responses to the needs of the times Ex both world wars and post world war baby boomers changed and shaped psychology based on the needs the times demanded. TECHNOLOGY AND THE CHANGING NATURE OF WORK - technology has emerged as a major challenge to our understanding of what constitutes a workplace. – employees work from home in their cars, from remote locations - technology poses new challenges and re frames old ones for i/o psychologists. Leadership has been studied in i/o psych but virtual leadership poses new issues. How does one lead employees whom one never sees. - Cyber aggression- the expression of aggression through computer- media communication (ex e-mail.) - Our understanding of what is, or is not, expected in the workplace is also changing, before we had an issue with absenteeism, now the study of presenteism is being explored. - Presenteeism- The notion that individuals show up to work even though they might be sick and not capable of working up to their normal standard. - Ex how to deal with people who come into work with sars or H1N1 virus. CHAPTER 2 FOUNDATIONS OF RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION I: RELIABILITY AND VALIDITY THE RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION PROCESS - there are many applicants for each available job. The employers goal is to hire an applicant who possesses knowledge, skills, abilities, or other attributes (KSAOs) required to successfully perform the job being filed. - The employer has to guess which applicant will perform the job most effectively. Correct guesses results in positive benefits for the organization and the employee - Wrong guesses could negatively affect productivity and profitability for the company, coupled with negative emotional response by the employee. - Therefore the employer must identify KSAOs that are required for job success and measure or asses the KSAOs of all applicants. THE HIRING PROCESS - personnel recruitment and selection strategies based on information obtained through scientific methods are more likely to benefit an organization than decisions based on impressions or intuition. (review table 2.1 Pg. 26 for comparison) - job or work analysis information identifies the tasks and behaviours that make up a job and, though inference, the KSAOs that contribute to performance of these tasks and behaviours. - Theses inferences are based on empirical evidence demonstrating validity between the job dimensions and KSAO constructs In other situations. - Constructs- an idea or concept constructed or invoked to explain relationships between observations (Ex; the construct “extroversion” used to explain the relationship between “social forthrightness” and “sales”) - The HR specialist must translate the KSAO constructs into measurable predictors. - The fact that a security dispatcher sends, recives, processes, and analyzes info suggests that the applicant for this position should demonstrate a fair degree of cognitive ability. - The HR specialist must determine how each of these KSAOs will be assessed. Using Cognitive ability for example: A general cognitive ability test may be most appropriate in assessing ones Cog. Abilities. - Predictors - Selection is about prediction - Forecasting who is likely to succeed in jobs based on available data - If we knew who was going to be a good performer, we wouldn’t need predictors - In effect, predictors forecast criteria since we don’t have criterion data. - The predictors that are chosen must be valid measures of KSAO constructs that have been identified as related to job performance. - The goal of selection is to identify job candidates who have the attributes required for success on the job. On the basis of predictor data obtained through an assessment of job applicants, th HR team predicts which applicants will be successful in the position. THE LEGAL ENVIRONMENT AND SELECTION - selection programs and practices must operate within the current legal context. - Selection programs that intentionally or unintentionally exclude job applicants using characteristics or factors that are protected under human rights legislation, unless bona fide occupational requirements (BFORs), run the risk of being declared discriminatory and are subjected to fines. - Employment equity (affirmative action in U.S)- A term coined in 1986, referring to policies and initiatives to promote employment opportunities for members of designated minority groups. - Correlation - In most organizations, relationship between the predictor and criterion measures are correlated to find the best applicant for the job - Answers the question: what degree of relation is present? - The statistic is denoted as rXY , and is calculated over n - pairs of observations - With a perfect correlation, all points in the scatter gram fall on a straight line - +1 indicates a perfect direct relation between X and Y -1 indicates a perfect indirect relation between the variables correlation of 0.0 indicates no linear relation between the two BUILDING A FOUNDATION - with s
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