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Chapter 11

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PSYC 3110
Kieran O' Doherty

Chapter 11 – Information & Communication Health Communication - Refers to all interpersonal, organization or mass communications that concerns health and is intended to improve the health status of individuals or populations - For healthcare providers effective health communications is vital in ensuring message reaches and influences its target. For consumers, effective health communication is important to make people aware of health risks and relevant services Communication Theory - For communication to occur you need a sender, a receiver, a message and a medium for transmitting the message - Shannon and Weavers Model of Communication – five main components o Source – where the message is coming from o Transmitter – something that ‘encodes’ the message into signals o Channel – where encoded signals are transmitted o Receiver – something that decodes the signal back into the message o Destination – where the message goes o E.g. you want to express an idea to a friend: you are the source of the message, the messages needs to be encoded through your words, you then transit the message with your mouth, your message is then converted to sound waves and travel through a channel, your friends ear then receives the sound waves and the brain decodes it in the brain – the destination o It is important for recipients to consider the message and its source – is it reliable? For senders it is important to consider the purpose and target destination Health-Care Professionals Patient Communication - Good communication can enable patients to relay information about their physical and mental state that allow early identification of symptoms, diagnosis and treatment of condition - Despite its importance health-care professionals (HCP) patient communication may not always be effective if there are gaps between what the HPC conveys and what the patient understands, and vice-versa - 2 general approaches to the study of HCP-patient communication o 1. The Deviant Patient Perspective – early studies focused on patient characteristics in their attempt to account for failures in doctor-patient communication. Assumed that in their presentation to the doctor, patients routinely masking the ‘real’ problem and believed it was up to the doctor to figure it out. A link was found between patient satisfaction and compliance (satisfied patients more likely to cooperate with doctor advice) o 2. The Authoritarian Doctor Perspective – researchers looked at the ways doctors use their authority in order to control the doctor-patient interaction. Results show 4 diagnostic styles and seven prescriptive styles  Patient-centered style: uses patients knowledge and experience through techniques such as silence, listening and reflecting  Doctor-centered: makes use of doctors knowledge and skill, asking through questions  Patient-centered style: called on as the proper style because it; explored both disease and illness experience, understanding the whole experience, incorporating prevention and health promotion, enhancing patient-doctor relationship and being realistic (detailed table on page 250)  Suggested that patient-centered styles increase patient adherence as well as satisfaction o 3. The Interactive Dyad Perspective – in 1990’s focus on HCP-patient communication shifted and researcher began looking at communicative event to which both doctor and patient contribute. Both HCP and patients use language in order to achieve interpersonal objectives such as disclaiming or attributing responsibility for patient’s ill health or projecting a ‘brave face’ to avoid appearing as a hypochondriac. Serious misunderstandings can arise when the doctor takes, at face value, patient statements that are in fact designed to communicate relational or self-presentational meanings; e.g. How are you? – Fine thanks you. Important of non-verbal communication in the form of eye contact, facial expression and gestures Social Marketing - Application of consumer oriented marketing techniques in the design, implementation and evaluation of programs aimed to influence behaviour change for public benefit. Draws on concepts from behavioural theory, persuasion psychology and marketing since science and incorporates the ‘four Ps’ of marketing (place, pride, product and promotion) - Key Concepts; o Consumer orientation: uses consumer
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