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PSYC 3390 (102)
Chapter 14

Abnormal Psychology Chapter 14

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PSYC 3390
Mary Manson

Chapter 14 12/5/2012 5:37:00 PM Schizophrenia - Prevalence is around 1% - Begins in late adolescence or early adulthood, begins earlier in men than in women - Average age of onset is 25 years for men and 29 years for women - Males develop more severe form of the disorder - Declining levels of estrogen around menopause might explain late onset - Split within the intellect, between the intellect and emotion and between the intellect and external reality Clinical Picture - Criteria: two or more of the following symptoms, present for a significant portion of time during a one month period: delusions/ hallucinations/ disorganized speech/grossly disorganized or catatonic behaviour/ negative symptoms AND dysfunction in work, interpersonal relationships or self care and signs of disturbance for atleast 6 months, with atleast one month of symptoms listed above - A delusion is an erroneous belief that is fixed and firmly held despite clear contradictory evidence - Delusions occur in 90% of cases - Beliefs that ones thoughts, feelings or actions are being controlled by external agents, that ones private thoughts are being broadcast indiscriminately to others, that thoughts are being inserted into ones brain by some external agency or that some external agency has robbed one of ones thoughts—delusions of reference or delusions of bodily changes or removal of organs are also not uncommon - A hallucination is a sensory experience that occurs in the absence of any external percetual stimulus; can occur in any sensory modality but auditory hallucinations are the most common in 75% of cases and visual hallucinations are the less common (15%); they often have relevance for the patient at some level and patients can become emotionally involved in their hallucinations - 73% saied that their voices spoke at normal conversational volumes and were often those of people known to the patient in real life, but sometimes believed to be the voices of god or the devil - heard more than one voice and hallucinations were worse when alone; they were rude and vulgar or critical, bossy or abusive in most cases - positive symptoms are those that reflect an excess or distortion in a normal repertoire of behaviour and experience such as delusions and hallucinations - negative symptoms reflect an absence or deficit of behaviours that are normally present—flat or blunted emotional expressiveness, alogia, and avolition - most patients exhibit both symptoms, but a preponderance of negative symptoms in the clinical picture is not a good sign for the patients future outcome Subtypes of Schizophrenia - criteria for paranoid schizophrenia: preoccupations with delusions or frequent auditory hallucinations/no evidence of marked disorganized speech, disorganized or catatonic behaviour, flat or inappropriate affect - criteria for disorganized: disorganized speech, behav
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