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PSYC 3390 (102)
Chapter 12

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PSYC 3390
Mary Manson- Hennig

Chapter 12 Addiction Disorders Individual lifestyle and personality features are thought to play a role in the development of addictive disorders and are central themes in some types of treatmentAddictive behaviour is defined as behaviour based on the pathological need for a substance or activityand may involve the abuse of the substance The most commonly used problem substances are those that affect mental functioning or psychoactivedrugs which include alcohol nicotine barbiturates tranquillizers amphetamines heroin ecstasy and marijuanaFor diagnostic purposed addiction or substancerelated disorders are divided into two majorcategories conditions that involve organic impairment resulting from the prolonged and excessiveingestion of psychoactive substances and comprises substanceinduced organic mental disorders and syndromesboth these conditions stem from toxicity or from physiological changes in the brain due to vitamin deficiency and the majority of addiction disorders fall into the second category which focuses onmaladaptive behaviour resulting from regular and consistent use of a substanceSubstance abuse involves a pathological use of a substance resulting in a potentially hazardousbehaviour such as driving while intoxicated or continued use despite a persistent social psychological occupational or health problemSubstance dependence includes more severe forms of substanceuse disorders and usually involveda marked physiological need for increasing amounts of a substance to achieve the desired effectsDependence to these disorders means that an individual will show a tolerance for a drug andorexperience withdrawal symptoms when the drug is unavailableTolerance refers to the need for increased amounts of a substance to achieve the desired effectsresulting from biochemical changes in the body that affect the rate of metabolism and of eliminationsof the substance from the bodyWithdrawal symptoms are physical symptoms such as sweating tremors and tension that accompany abstinence from the drugAlcohol Abuse and DependencyAlcoholism preferred term alcohol dependence syndrome is defined as a psychic and usuallyalso physical state resulting from taking alcohol characterized by behavioural and other responsesthat always include a compulsion to take alcohol on a continuous or periodic basis in order toexperience it psychic effect and sometimes to avoid the discomfort of its absence tolerance mayor may not be presentedMany ancient cultures including the Egyptian Greek and roman make extensive and oftenexcessive use of alcohol Cambyses the kind of Persia in the sixteenth century BCE is known tobe one of the first alcohol abusers on recordAlcohol abuse and dependence are major problems in the Western world and are among themost destructive of the psychiatric disordersThe life span of the average person with alcohol dependence is about 12 years shorter than thatof the average person without the disorder and was estimated that in 1995 over 6500 Canadianslost their lives as a result of alcohol consumption with motor vehicle accidents liver cirrhosis andsuicide being the leading causesAlcohol significantly lowers performance on cognitive tasks such as problem solving and the morecomplex task the greater the impairments and can also lead to brain shrinkageOver 37 of alcohol abusers suffer from at least one coexisting mental disorder which is not surprisinggiven that alcohol is a depressant depression and personality disorders are most common
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