Chapter 13 – Teaching Every Student
Research on Teaching
Characteristics of Effective Teachers
• clarity and organization
o Teachers who provide clear presentations and explanations tend to have students who learn more and who rate
their teachers more positively
• Warmth and enthusiasm
o Teachers trained to demonstrate their enthusiasm have students who are more attentive and involved
• Teachers knowledge
o Teachers who know more facts about their subject do not necessarily have students who learn more.
o teachers who know more may make clearer presentations and recognize student difficulties more readily
o being more knowledgeable helps teachers be clearer and more organized
Knowledge for Teaching
• knowledge is the defining characteristic of expertise ▯elaborate systems of knowledge for understanding problems in
• Reflective Thoughtful and inventive.
o Reflective teachers think back over situations to analyze what they did and why, and to consider how they
might improve learning for their students.
• Expert teachers know:
1. The academic subjects they teach
2. General teaching strategies that apply in all subjects (such as the principles of classroom management,
effective teaching, and evaluation)
3. The curriculum materials and programs appropriate for their subject and grade level.
4. Subjectspecific knowledge for teaching: special ways of teaching certain students and particular concepts
5. The characteristics and cultural backgrounds of learners.
6. The settings in which students learn—pairs, small groups, teams, classes, schools, and the community.
7. The goals and purposes of teaching.
The First Step: Planning
• time is the essence of planning
• teachers engage in several levels of planning—by the year, term, unit, week, and day.
o unit planning seems to be the most important level, followed by weekly and then daily planning
• plans reduce—but do not eliminate—uncertainty in teaching
o evidence that when teachers “overplan”—when they fill every minute and stick to the plan no matter what—
their students do not learn as much as students whose teachers are flexible
• collaboration is better Working with other teachers and sharing ideas is one of the best experiences in teaching
• no one mode