c
Early Writings
!p(German) was one of the first to address ID with dualism (separates nature and is
exemplified by the µanimal bod), followed by (English) about a century later (more
µscientific¶ perspective, emphasizing natural causes).  addressed religion in ID,
raising the possibility that ID may be caused by previous misdeeds of the parents ± an early
expression of parental guilt.
!pIn  view, the animal soul is damaged and the cause of the damage is of biological
origin.  also observed that ID can be acquired through disease and head injury, and also
that heavy use of alcohol can damage the animal soul and the brain. also touched on
mental illness producing deficiencies in behaviour. Willis tried to differentiate between
behaviour caused by mental illness as opposed to intellectual disabilities. He felt that
inherited IDs are largely incurable. He also recognized degrees of intellectual disabilities ±
mild to profound. He said they may have a hereditary base, and also repeated 
 theme of parental conduct being responsible for the babies¶ condition, but
attributing the problem more to a physiological cause.
^ Modrn Era ± Fral cildrn and arly attts at intrvntion
!p (1774-1838) developed instructional tools in working with deaf-mute individuals,
which were adapted to other children. ^ (1820) presented a scheme for the
instruction of children with intellectual disabilities.
!p work began with the ³wild boy of Aveyron´ ± a landmark because the case made
specific attempts at improving the condition, and was reported and publicly discussed. This
case was one of many where the child grew up isolated from society or in the ³company of
animals.´ There children are labeled as ³feral.´ The large majority of feral children are male,
and were given Latin names as if they belonged to a different species of man. Where they
were thought to be raised by animals, the Latin name of these animals were a part of their
classification.  made the observation that feral children were mutus, tetrapus, and
hirsutus (mute, ran on all fours, and were hairy).
!p allows for the possibility that progress may not be possible because of inherent
limitations, touching on a possible immutability of the condition. assigned a feral case
to !"#, who realized the boy was pleased when caressed. The goals he made
for the boy were to 1) endear him to social life, 2) awaken his nervous sensibility, 3) to
extend the sphere of his ideas by creating new wants, and multiplying his associations with
surrounding beings, 4) lead him to use speech by imitation, and 5) to exercise the simple
operations of his mind upon physical wants.  felt he didn¶t make his goals, but he
needed to consider the distance from the starting point to where he reached. The failure to
meet those expectations doesn¶t mean failure, and the  focused on how
far he had come. In this way, provided others with ways to train and educate
individuals with ID, and he strongly opposed physical punishment. The boy not being able to
walk may be attributed to missed critical periods, as we now know. There was also the
possibility of fraud with feral children.
!pThe treatment of cretins which 3undertook was even more difficult to attain, but
was very parallel to modern ³miracle´ cures. He was guilty of deceiving people in his
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Document Summary

Chapter 1 intellectual disabilities, seen from different perspectives. Early writings y y paracelsus (german) was one of the first to address id with dualism (separates nature and is exemplified by the animal body ), followed by willis (english) about a century later (more. St. augustine addressed religion in id, raising the possibility that id may be caused by previous misdeeds of the parents an early expression of parental guilt. In willis view, the animal soul is damaged and the cause of the damage is of biological origin. Willis also observed that id can be acquired through disease and head injury, and also that heavy use of alcohol can damage the animal soul and the brain. Willis also touched on mental illness producing deficiencies in behaviour. Willis tried to differentiate between behaviour caused by mental illness as opposed to intellectual disabilities. He felt that inherited ids are largely incurable. He also recognized degrees of intellectual disabilities mild to profound.

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