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Chapter 1

Chapter 1

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University of Guelph
PSYC 3850

Chapter 1Intellectual Disabilities Seen From Different Perspectives Early Writings y Paracelsus German was one of the first to address ID with dualism separates nature and is exemplified by the animal body followed by Willis English about a century later more scientific perspective emphasizing natural causes St Augustine addressed religion in ID raising the possibility that ID may be caused by previous misdeeds of the parentsan early expression of parental guilt y In Willis view the animal soul is damaged and the cause of the damage is of biological origin Willis also observed that ID can be acquired through disease and head injury and also that heavy use of alcohol can damage the animal soul and the brain Willis also touched on mental illness producing deficiencies in behaviour Willis tried to differentiate between behaviour caused by mental illness as opposed to intellectual disabilities He felt that inherited IDs are largely incurable He also recognized degrees of intellectual disabilitiesmild to profound He said they may have a hereditary base and also repeated St Augustines theme of parental conduct being responsible for the babies condition but attributing the problem more to a physiological cause The Modern EraFeral children and early attempts at intervention y Pereire 17741838 developed instructional tools in working with deafmute individuals which were adapted to other children Traugott Weise 1820 presented a scheme for the instruction of children with intellectual disabilities y Itards work began with the wild boy of Aveyrona landmark because the case made specific attempts at improving the condition and was reported and publicly discussed This case was one of many where the child grew up isolated from society or in the company of animals There children are labeled as feral The large majority of feral children are male and were given Latin names as if they belonged to a different species of man Where they were thought to be raised by animals the Latin name of these animals were a part of their classification Linnaeus made the observation that feral children were mutus tetrapus and hirsutus mute ran on all fours and were hairy y Pinel allows for the possibility that progress may not be possible because of inherent limitations touching on a possible immutability of the condition Pinel assigned a feral case to JeanMarc Itard who realized the boy was pleased when caressed The goals he made for the boy were to 1 endear him to social life 2 awaken his nervous sensibility 3 to extend the sphere of his ideas by creating new wants and multiplying his associations with surrounding beings 4 lead him to use speech by imitation and 5 to exercise the simple operations of his mind upon physical wants Itard felt he didnt make his goals but he needed to consider the distance from the starting point to where he reached The failure to meet those expectations doesnt mean failure and the Academie Francaise focused on how far he had come In this way Itard provided others with ways to train and educate individuals with ID and he strongly opposed physical punishment The boy not being able to walk may be attributed to missed critical periods as we now know There was also the possibility of fraud with feral children y The treatment of cretins which Guggenbuhl undertook was even more difficult to attain but was very parallel to modern miracle cures He was guilty of deceiving people in his
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