Textbook Notes (368,795)
Canada (162,165)
Psychology (3,337)
PSYC 3850 (88)
Chapter 1


6 Pages
Unlock Document

PSYC 3850
Heidi Bailey

Understanding Intellectual Disabilities – Chapter 1 - Some developmental differences may be so subtle at one point o Don’t attract attention o Become more evident at another developmental time - What is considered developmental limitation by one profession at one point may not be by another - Perceptions of what is normal vary widely over time and b/w disciplines Historical Perspectives - Diverse concepts and varying characteristics have influenced different descriptions of people w/ intellectual disabilities, depending on society’s views and situational influences during any given time period - The fluidity of the concept is due to a variety of reasons o Economic, social, and political climate influences of various cultures throughout history - Before 1800 o Having an intellectual disability not considered urgent social problem  Those w/ severed intellectual disabilities either killed or died of natural causes at an early age o Drain on society and target for elimination (till recent mid-1900s) o Those w/ mild intellectual disabilities could function well in agrarian society  Earliest reference 1552 BC; some evidence pre-dating this time o Severe head injuries common, resulting in abnormal behaviour o Brain surgeries had been performed w/ intention to cure abnormal behaviour  On assumption that evil spirits cause strange behaviour  Opening a hole in the skill permitted them to escape  Resulted in diminished intellectual ability - SES conditions influenced understanding and treatment o Mental and physical = disgrace b/c of stigma o Economic drain - Political authority – force in determining the lot of people w/ intellectual disabilities o 6 C – Pop Gregory I instructed the faithful to help crippled o Referred to as idiots th o 12 C – King Henry II – natural fools  Distinguished b/w those w/ intellectual disabilities and those w/ mental illness - Reproductive sterilization - Study by Henry Goddard – Revolutionary War soldier Martin Kallikak o Fathered a child w/ a barmaid and later w/ a “normal” person o One doomed for life as a degenerate; other destined to be successful o Fostered sterilization movement  For fear of intellectual disabilities - People w/ intellectual disabilities in institutions were viewed as permanent residents o Not trained for return to society o Solution for preventing a problem citizen Disciplines and Professions Disciplines Perspectives and Contributions - Multiple professions involved in the field of intellectual disabilities Terminology - Term perceived thru Western lenses, in which constancy, regularity, and predictability are assumed - Moved to fluid conceptualization o Biomedical causes as well as environmental and social factors o Change due to advances in natural and social sciences, economics, and use of less pejorative terms - Wide range of behaviour - Label of fact and label of conjecture o Fact – quantifiable and verifiable  Observed characteristics determined by biomedical disagnosis  Tay-Sachs, down syndrome and anencephaly o Conjecture – concepts only hypothesized  Only 20% of intellectual disabilities caused by medical factors; 80% is uncertain  Incidence of mild ID higher among people from low SES - Framework used to describe ID affects society’s perception of nature and extent of the challenge - Orientation of discipline affects view of people w/ ID Contributions of Biological and Medical Sciences - Physician – first medical profession to identify diagnosis o View from physiological perspective limited o Limit effectiveness of counseling - Medical research – locates causal factor - Advances in genetics allow professionals to prevent many forms of intellectual disabilities o Positive and negative outcomes - Some ID preventable before conception o Carriers of defective genes - Psychiatry – American Association on Mental Deficiency (AAMID, now AAMR) o Limited view of the spectrum of IDs Contributions of the Behavioural Sciences - Each field has operated independently, w/I confines of own terms - Psychology – most involved o Three important areas it had contributed  Intelligence theory and testing  Learning theory research  Interpersonal social aspects o Knowledge would not have progressed w/o data and knowledge generated by experimental psychology - Anthropology – adaptation of people w/ ID to their environments (Edgerton) o Qualitative research, emphasizing the observation and recording of information about people in their natural environment o Provides useful info to complement existing knowledge base - Sociology – need to view ID from sociological perspective rather than clinical o Full contribution remains untapped - The law o Legal profession operates in an adversarial role o Procedural changes made Contributions of Education - Educators face multidisciplinary needs of those w/ ID - Provide effective research-based instruction - Contributions of education in aiding the understanding of ID has been to o Identify needs  Earliest efforts of education  First intelligence test – Alfred Binet o Stimulate research and theory o Coordinate and deliver instruction and related service - Alfred Binet intelligence test – determine which child will fail in school and need special help o Measurement of intelligence has been influenced by educational  Influenced largely by educational needs rather than interest in the discipline - Educators are the catalyst core, stimulating the efforts of the disciplines and then using their findings for the betterment of society Disciplinary Collaboration - Need collaboration b/w disciplines to be successful - Bridge gaps among their perspectives - Two factors have prompted this progress o People w/ intellectual disabilities being served are the ultimate benefic
More Less

Related notes for PSYC 3850

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.