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Chapter 16

Chapter 16 Sociology Notes

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SOC 1100
Linda Gerber

Sociology Chapter 16 The EconomyWorkThe Economy Historical OverviewThe economy is the social institution that organizes a societys production distribution and consumption of goods and services Operates in generally predictable manner What people buy as consumers and produce as workers goodservices are important parts of social identityEg Hes a stockbroker she drives a Mercedes etcThe Agricultural Revolution Earliest human societies made up of huntergatherers living off the land w no distinct economy Then people harnessed animals together to plow which made new agricultural economy more productiveMeant not everyone had to produce food so many took on specialized work making tools raisinganimals building homes Four factors agricultural technology job specialization permanent settlements and trade made economy distinct social institutionThe Industrial Revolution By mid 1700s in England and than North America second technological Revolution happeningIndustrialization changed economy by1 New Sources of Energy energy means muscle power of peopleanimals But in 1965 James Watt introduced steam engine which soon drove heavy machinery2 Centralization of Work in factories Steampowered machines soon moved work from home to factories3 ManufacturingMass Production Before the Industrial revolution most people grew or gathered raw materials such as grain wood or wool Now focus shifted so that most people work to turn raw materials into a wide range of finished products such as furniture and clothing4 Specialization Before industrialization people worked at home as artisans making products start to finish In factory worker repeats single task overover raises productivity but lowers the skill level of the average worker5 Wage Labour Instead of working for themselves factory workers started working for strangers who often cared less for them than for the machines they operated Industrial revolution gradually raised standard of living Majority of industrial workers were among most poorly paidThe InformationPostIndustrial Societyth By middle of 20 century nature of production was changing again PostIndustrial economy a productive system based on service work and high technology Automated machinery robotics reduced role of human labour in factory productionexpanded ranks of clerical workersmanagers The computer drove this change Information revolution has introduced new kinds of products and new form of communication and has altered the character of work3 significant changes1 From tangible products to ideas industrial era defined by production of goods in the postindustrial era people work w symbols Computer programmers graphic designers financial analysiss advertising executives architects editors and all sorts of consultants make up labour force of information age2 From Mechanical Skills to Literacy Skills The industrial revolution required mechanical skills but the information revolution requires literacy skills speaking writing well and knowing how to use a computer3 From Factories to almost anywhere Industrial technology drew workers into factories located near power sources but computer technology allows people to work almost anywhereNew technology blurs line between work and home life The French Canadians of Manchester New Hampshire 1870s FrenchCanadian immigrants forced out of impoverished farming areas by a scarcity of land went to New Hampshire Mill owners decided FrenchCanadian workers were ideal workers bc they had large families who could work Family based structure discouraged union formation
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