Culture- the ways of thinking, the ways of acting, and the material objects that together shape a people"s way of life. Nonmaterial culture- the ideas created by members of a society. Material culture- the physical thing created by members of a society. Cultural shock- personal disorientation when experiencing an unfamiliar way of life. Symbols- anything that carries a particular meaning recognized by people who share culture. Language- a system of symbols that allows people to communicate with one another. Cultural transmission- the process by which one generation passes culture to the next. Sapir-whorf hypothesis- people perceived the world through the cultural lens of language. Values- culturally defined standards that people use to decide what is desirable, good, and beautiful, and that serve as broad guidelines for social living. Beliefs- specific statements that people hold to be true. Norms- rules and expectations by which society guides the behaviour of its members.