Textbook Notes (367,754)
Canada (161,370)
Sociology (1,112)
SOC 1500 (173)
Chapter 11

Chapter 11

6 Pages
Unlock Document

SOC 1500
Michael A Dixon

Chapter 11- Violent Crime The Roots of Violence Personal Traits ✴ Laura Bender concluded that they suffered from abnormal EEG readings, learning disabilities, and psychosis ✴ recent research found murderous youths suffer signs of major neurological impairment, low intelligence, and psychotic symptoms Ineffective Families ✴ parents reinforce a child’s coercive behaviour by failing to set adequate limits or use proper and consistent discipline ✴ children who are exposed to fighting in the home are more likely to be physically aggressive themselves ✴ murderers contain a high percentage of seriously abused youths ✴ Brutalization: the first stage in a violent career during which parents victimize children, causing them to develop a belligerent, angry demeanor ✴ this process takes youths full circle, from being the victim of aggression to being its initiator Evolutionary Factors/Human Instinct ✴ it is possible that violent responses are inherent in all humans, needing only the right trigger ✴ Eros: according to Freud, of the two opposing instinctual drives that interact to control behaviour, eros is the life instinct, which drives people to self-fulfillment ✴ Thanatos: according to Freud, this is the death instinct, which drives people toward aggression, violence, and self-destruction ✴ Lorenz felt humans have some of the same aggressive instincts as humans but without some important inhibitions Cultural Values ✴ subculture of violence- subculture’s norms are separate from society’s central ✴ ganging- violence is highest in urban areas in which subcultural values support teenage gangs whose members embrace the use of violence Regional Values ✴ high homicide rates to a culture that stresses a frontier mentality, personal vengeance ✴ western provinces have a higher overall rate of violent crimes Substance Abuse ✴ influences violence in 3 ways: through the actual effects of drugs, out of the need to obtain drugs, and in relation to drug trafficking ✴ Psychopharmacological: the effect of a mood-altering substance such as alcohol, PCP, or amphetamines in producing a change in behaviour that can be violent Firearm availability ✴ firearm availability is not itself a cause of violence but it’s a factor. Eg: an argument can escalate into a fatality if one party has a handgun ✴ instrumental crime: those unable to obtain desired goods and services through conventional means may resort to theft and other crime, such as the sale of narcotics, to obtain them ✴ crime-related violence: when the violence is committed during the course of another crime, usually between strangers ✴ expressive violence: violence that is designed not for profit but to vent anger or frustration; also called conflict-related violence ✴ conflict-related violence: an expressive crime of passion involving acquaintances, with factors (eg. drug use) that inhibit rational evaluation of the consequences of an immediate violent act Sexual Assault History of Rape ❖ in early civilization, rape was common-> men staked a claim of ownership on women ❖ violation of virgin caused an economic hardship on her family, who expected a significant dowry for her hand in marriage ❖ in Babylonian and Hebraic law, rape of a virgin was punishable by death ❖ if the victim was a married woman, both she and her attacker were equally to blame-> unless intercepted by the husband, both the victim and her attacker were put to death Sexual Assault and the Military ❖ rape is associated with welfare, as conquering armies have long considered rape of their enemies’ women one of the spoils of war Incidence of Sexual Assault ❖ sexual assault has a low report rate ❖ population density influences the rape rate ❖ rape is also a warm weather crime Type of Rapists ❖ Gendered violence: the concept that some forms of violence tend to be committed against women, by men, e.g., sexual assault, stalking, domestic violence ❖ every rape encounter contains 3 elements: anger, power, and sexuality ❖ anger rapes- a discharge of pent-up anger and rage; they hurt the victim as much as possible ❖ power rapes-goal is sexual conquest using only the amount of force necessary; victim is usually younger ❖ sadistic rapes- involve aggression, and the victim might be abused, tortured Types of Rape ❖ date rape: a form of sexual assault that occurs between acquaintances; it has the lowest level of reporting ❖ if rape occurs after couple has been together a while, male may feel he has invested so much time and money into his partner that he is owed sexual relations ❖ victims blame themselves and don’t recognize the incident as rape, are too embarrassed or frightened to report the crime ❖ marital exemption: the practice in some places of prohibiting the prosecution of husbands for the rape of their wives The Cause of Rape ❖ evolutionary/biological aspects of the male sexual drive may have served the purpose of maximizing offspring ❖ rape is a function of male socialization-> boys are taught to be aggressive, to separate sexual feelings from love and affection ❖ men learn and are influences by watching violent or pornographic films featuring women who are beaten, raped, or tortured ❖ older criminals may be raping for motives of power and control, younger offenders are seeking sexual gratification Rape and the Law ❖ women are reluctant to report this crime because of how rape victims are often treated by police, prosecutors, and court personnel ❖ now the justice system is more willing to take rape seriously ❖ consent: the lack of which is a legal element in the charge of sexual assault; cannot be extinguished by drunkenness ❖ shield laws: laws designed to protect rape victims by prohibiting the defence attorney from inquiring about their previous sexual relationships ❖ credibility of sexual assault victims is still more likely to be challenged than is testimony of victims of non-sexual assault Murder Degrees of Murder ๏ murder: colloquially refers to the killing of one person by another; homicide is separated into the categories of first- and second-degree murder, manslaughter, and infanticide ๏ first degree~ when a person kills after deliberation ๏ Premeditation: in a case of first-degree homicide, the prosecution must prove that the offence was thought out and planned ๏ second degree~ requires the actor to have malice but not premeditation ๏ manslaughter~ unlawful homicide without malice committed in the heat of passion or during a sudden quarrel ๏ women are more likely to be killed by their mates than men-> men
More Less

Related notes for SOC 1500

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.