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SOC 1500 (173)
Chapter 11

Chapter 11

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Department
Sociology
Course
SOC 1500
Professor
Michael A Dixon
Semester
Winter

Description
Chapter 11- Violent Crime The Roots of Violence Personal Traits ✴ Laura Bender concluded that they suffered from abnormal EEG readings, learning disabilities, and psychosis ✴ recent research found murderous youths suffer signs of major neurological impairment, low intelligence, and psychotic symptoms Ineffective Families ✴ parents reinforce a child’s coercive behaviour by failing to set adequate limits or use proper and consistent discipline ✴ children who are exposed to fighting in the home are more likely to be physically aggressive themselves ✴ murderers contain a high percentage of seriously abused youths ✴ Brutalization: the first stage in a violent career during which parents victimize children, causing them to develop a belligerent, angry demeanor ✴ this process takes youths full circle, from being the victim of aggression to being its initiator Evolutionary Factors/Human Instinct ✴ it is possible that violent responses are inherent in all humans, needing only the right trigger ✴ Eros: according to Freud, of the two opposing instinctual drives that interact to control behaviour, eros is the life instinct, which drives people to self-fulfillment ✴ Thanatos: according to Freud, this is the death instinct, which drives people toward aggression, violence, and self-destruction ✴ Lorenz felt humans have some of the same aggressive instincts as humans but without some important inhibitions Cultural Values ✴ subculture of violence- subculture’s norms are separate from society’s central ✴ ganging- violence is highest in urban areas in which subcultural values support teenage gangs whose members embrace the use of violence Regional Values ✴ high homicide rates to a culture that stresses a frontier mentality, personal vengeance ✴ western provinces have a higher overall rate of violent crimes Substance Abuse ✴ influences violence in 3 ways: through the actual effects of drugs, out of the need to obtain drugs, and in relation to drug trafficking ✴ Psychopharmacological: the effect of a mood-altering substance such as alcohol, PCP, or amphetamines in producing a change in behaviour that can be violent Firearm availability ✴ firearm availability is not itself a cause of violence but it’s a factor. Eg: an argument can escalate into a fatality if one party has a handgun ✴ instrumental crime: those unable to obtain desired goods and services through conventional means may resort to theft and other crime, such as the sale of narcotics, to obtain them ✴ crime-related violence: when the violence is committed during the course of another crime, usually between strangers ✴ expressive violence: violence that is designed not for profit but to vent anger or frustration; also called conflict-related violence ✴ conflict-related violence: an expressive crime of passion involving acquaintances, with factors (eg. drug use) that inhibit rational evaluation of the consequences of an immediate violent act Sexual Assault History of Rape ❖ in early civilization, rape was common-> men staked a claim of ownership on women ❖ violation of virgin caused an economic hardship on her family, who expected a significant dowry for her hand in marriage ❖ in Babylonian and Hebraic law, rape of a virgin was punishable by death ❖ if the victim was a married woman, both she and her attacker were equally to blame-> unless intercepted by the husband, both the victim and her attacker were put to death Sexual Assault and the Military ❖ rape is associated with welfare, as conquering armies have long considered rape of their enemies’ women one of the spoils of war Incidence of Sexual Assault ❖ sexual assault has a low report rate ❖ population density influences the rape rate ❖ rape is also a warm weather crime Type of Rapists ❖ Gendered violence: the concept that some forms of violence tend to be committed against women, by men, e.g., sexual assault, stalking, domestic violence ❖ every rape encounter contains 3 elements: anger, power, and sexuality ❖ anger rapes- a discharge of pent-up anger and rage; they hurt the victim as much as possible ❖ power rapes-goal is sexual conquest using only the amount of force necessary; victim is usually younger ❖ sadistic rapes- involve aggression, and the victim might be abused, tortured Types of Rape ❖ date rape: a form of sexual assault that occurs between acquaintances; it has the lowest level of reporting ❖ if rape occurs after couple has been together a while, male may feel he has invested so much time and money into his partner that he is owed sexual relations ❖ victims blame themselves and don’t recognize the incident as rape, are too embarrassed or frightened to report the crime ❖ marital exemption: the practice in some places of prohibiting the prosecution of husbands for the rape of their wives The Cause of Rape ❖ evolutionary/biological aspects of the male sexual drive may have served the purpose of maximizing offspring ❖ rape is a function of male socialization-> boys are taught to be aggressive, to separate sexual feelings from love and affection ❖ men learn and are influences by watching violent or pornographic films featuring women who are beaten, raped, or tortured ❖ older criminals may be raping for motives of power and control, younger offenders are seeking sexual gratification Rape and the Law ❖ women are reluctant to report this crime because of how rape victims are often treated by police, prosecutors, and court personnel ❖ now the justice system is more willing to take rape seriously ❖ consent: the lack of which is a legal element in the charge of sexual assault; cannot be extinguished by drunkenness ❖ shield laws: laws designed to protect rape victims by prohibiting the defence attorney from inquiring about their previous sexual relationships ❖ credibility of sexual assault victims is still more likely to be challenged than is testimony of victims of non-sexual assault Murder Degrees of Murder ๏ murder: colloquially refers to the killing of one person by another; homicide is separated into the categories of first- and second-degree murder, manslaughter, and infanticide ๏ first degree~ when a person kills after deliberation ๏ Premeditation: in a case of first-degree homicide, the prosecution must prove that the offence was thought out and planned ๏ second degree~ requires the actor to have malice but not premeditation ๏ manslaughter~ unlawful homicide without malice committed in the heat of passion or during a sudden quarrel ๏ women are more likely to be killed by their mates than men-> men
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