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Chapter 3

ANTH 1220 Chapter 3: Topic 28

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ANTH 1220
Ellen R.Judd

o982 How animal relates to others of its same species Ecological adaptation and reproductive strategies Noyau = males and female all have own land (solitary), male overlaps with land of several females and mates Mostly nocturnal, insectivorous prosimians and higher primates (orangutans) Territorial pairs = malefemale pair live together, defined by both, little sexual dimorphism, rare among primates (except gibbons) Single male groupHarem = one adult male, several females and immature offspring, have own territory Complementary groups = all male (bachelors) wander until can depose a male in a harem Multimale group = all ages and sexes, 100+ individuals, males dominate (more dominance = more access to females), dominated by single large male, males cooperate and allow lower rank males in group, form defense perimeter, terrestrialdangerous areas Harem within Multimale = complex, every male has harem of females, males DONT fight, fitness defined by ability to interact with females, strong malefemale and malemale relationships, effective exploitation of environment, not common (baboons) Chimpanzee = closest to humans (multi male and multi female), males organized according to dominance, rarely have violent displays for change displays are loud Hedonistic (reassurance via embracing) behavior, dominance not related to female accessibility (females mate with many males) Females signal sexual receptivity, choose who they want to mate with (NO INCEST) Strong motherchild relationship, persists into adult life, basis of local group Archaeology Site = spatial cluster of artifacts, features and ecofacts Artifacts = portable, partlywholly modified by human activity Features = nonportable artifacts Ecofacts = non artefactual remains that have cultural significance (e.g. bones) Regions = clusters of similar materials at a group of sites We dont find any organic materials (cloth, wood, leather, paper) Archaeological record is incompleteselective (accidentalabandoned) Archaeology = family of approached to materials of any age Chronology, spatial behavior, reconstruct pastmeaning, explain change Prehistory = people with nolimited written records
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