proper food handling is important at each stage of food production. A Hazard Analysis Critical
Control Point (HACCP) plan can help food producers and processors prevent food borne illness.
see figure 12.1: Flow of food safety: from farm to table
HACCP: 7 Principles:
HACCP was initially developped in the USA to ensure safety of foods to be used in the space
program. It is a preventative system that significantly reduces production of unsafe food
products. It is food safety protocols involving the manufacturing environment, food handling
personnel, equipment and food itself that food processers and manufacturers follow, which is
based on risk assessment and the identification of critical control points. Critical control points
are points during the food production process that need to be controlled to ensure the safety of
the food product.
HACCP was designed for 3 reasons:
Identify hazards that could occur to foods during their preparation
Identify control steps in food production that ensure a safe product
Monitor these steps to ensure they are being controlled
HACCP system consists of 7 principles:
Conduct a hazard analysis: the process of identifying the hazards that might affect a particular
product in a during processing, and then collecting and evaluating information on the hazards
and conditions causing the hazards to determine which are significant to food safety and must
be addressed by the HACCP plan. o|82
Determine critical control points (CCPs): It involves identifying where during processing the
hazards addressed in the HACCP plan can be prevented, reduced or eliminated. It is a point,
step or procedure in the food manufacturing process where a control measure is essential and
can be applied to prevent, eliminate or reduce a food safety hazard to an acceptable level.
Establish critical limits: clearly defined and measurable criteria that separate a safe product from
an unsafe product and must be established for each critical control point.
Establish monitoring procedures: the process of conducting and documenting observations or
measurements to determine if a CCP is under control and the critical limit is being met.
Establish corrective actions: predetermined, written report of actions that are taken when CCP
monitoring results indicate that a problem has occurred and there is the potential that unsafe
food has been, or will be, prod