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HNSC 1200 (46)
Snehil Dua (46)
Chapter 5

HNSC 1200 Chapter 5: Topic 5.3

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Human Nutritional Sciences
HNSC 1200
Snehil Dua

o982 1. MONOSACCHARIDES GLUCOSE glucose is the most abundant sugar in the world found in fruits, plant juices and honey often present with other sugars, e.g honey with fructose glucose is the form of sugar that circulates in the bloodstream, It is broken down in the body to give 3 products: energy water carbon dioxide many complex carbohydrates such as starch and cellulose have glucose as the basic unit major component of corn syrup which is formed by hydrolysis of starch. Corn syrup and crystalline glucose are widely used in the baking industry. FRUCTOSE found in fruits, plant juices and honey sweetest of all common sugars very soluble and does not crystallize easily GALACTOSE not normally found in its free form in foods forms a bond with glucose to produce lactose (milk sugar) some galactose is found in free form in fermented milk products (e.g. yogurt) where hydrolysis of lactose has occured galactose is the basic unit of some complete carbohydrates such as vegetable gums 2. DISACCHARIDES Disaccharides are two monosaccharides linked together SUCROSE: • table sugar OS98 extracted from sugar cane and sugar beets consists of glucose and fructose chemically bonded to each other present with other sugars in fruits, honey and vegetables MALTOSE (glucose + glucose) found in germinating grain and corn syrup. A product of starch hydrolysis important for production of malted beverages such as beer consists of 2 glucose molecules chemically bonded to each other LACTOSE (glucose + galactose) • milk sugar • consists of glucose and galactose chemically bonded to each other • only found naturally in milk and milk products 3. OLIGOSACCHARIDES • carbohydrate molecules that contain 10 or fewer monosaccharides • include raffinose and stachyose commonly found in dried beans • not digested by humans but broken down by bacteria in intestinal tract resulting in gas formation 4. POLYSACCHARIDES Complex CHO/polysaccharides are chains of sugar units linked together. Starch, glycogen, and fibre are all polysaccharides up to several hundred thousand monosaccharides joined together homo-polysaccharides (homoglucans) are composed of the
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