extracted from sugar cane and sugar beets
consists of glucose and fructose chemically bonded to each other
present with other sugars in fruits, honey and vegetables
MALTOSE (glucose + glucose)
found in germinating grain and corn syrup. A product of starch hydrolysis
important for production of malted beverages such as beer
consists of 2 glucose molecules chemically bonded to each other
LACTOSE (glucose + galactose)
• milk sugar
• consists of glucose and galactose chemically bonded to each other
• only found naturally in milk and milk products
• carbohydrate molecules that contain 10 or fewer monosaccharides
• include raffinose and stachyose commonly found in dried beans
• not digested by humans but broken down by bacteria in intestinal tract resulting in gas
Complex CHO/polysaccharides are chains of sugar units linked together. Starch, glycogen, and
fibre are all polysaccharides
up to several hundred thousand monosaccharides joined together
homo-polysaccharides (homoglucans) are composed of the same type of monosaccharide
hetero-polysaccharides (heteroglucans) are composed of at least 2 types of monosaccharides
may be straight chains or highly branched chains
see table 5: applications of various polysaccharides used in food processing in textbooks
• (homoglucan) is a plants storage to form of glucose. It can be branched or unbranched and Oc78
is water insoluble (so cannot wash away from plant via rain). Starch provides plants with
energy and humans/ animals with energy when eaten, as we can digest starch.
Basic storage form of carbohydrates in plants - found in abundance in seeds, roots and
tubers. Consists of only glucose molecules.
Two kinds of starch molecules: amylose and amylopectin.
Amylose has a linear chain structure.
Amylopectin has a highly branched structure.
Most natural starches consist of mixtures of amylose and amylopectin.
Normal starch consists of 25% amylose and 75% amylopectin.
Starch granules swell when heated in water - a process called gelatinization.
Gelatinization is responsible for the thickening that occurs when a starch pudding or sauce is
See Figure 7 and Figure 8 in your textbook
B. Dextrins (Homoglucans) are polysaccharides that are derived from starch.
Produced commercially when starch molecules are partially broken down by enzymes, acid or dry
heat (a process called dextrinization).
Formed from cornstarch when corn syrup is made