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HNSC 1200 (46)
Snehil Dua (46)
Chapter 5

HNSC 1200 Chapter 5: Topic 5.4

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University of Manitoba
Human Nutritional Sciences
HNSC 1200
Snehil Dua

OS98 extracted from sugar cane and sugar beets consists of glucose and fructose chemically bonded to each other present with other sugars in fruits, honey and vegetables MALTOSE (glucose + glucose) found in germinating grain and corn syrup. A product of starch hydrolysis important for production of malted beverages such as beer consists of 2 glucose molecules chemically bonded to each other LACTOSE (glucose + galactose) • milk sugar • consists of glucose and galactose chemically bonded to each other • only found naturally in milk and milk products 3. OLIGOSACCHARIDES • carbohydrate molecules that contain 10 or fewer monosaccharides • include raffinose and stachyose commonly found in dried beans • not digested by humans but broken down by bacteria in intestinal tract resulting in gas formation 4. POLYSACCHARIDES Complex CHO/polysaccharides are chains of sugar units linked together. Starch, glycogen, and fibre are all polysaccharides up to several hundred thousand monosaccharides joined together homo-polysaccharides (homoglucans) are composed of the same type of monosaccharide hetero-polysaccharides (heteroglucans) are composed of at least 2 types of monosaccharides may be straight chains or highly branched chains see table 5: applications of various polysaccharides used in food processing in textbooks A. Starch: • (homoglucan) is a plants storage to form of glucose. It can be branched or unbranched and Oc78 is water insoluble (so cannot wash away from plant via rain). Starch provides plants with energy and humans/ animals with energy when eaten, as we can digest starch. Basic storage form of carbohydrates in plants - found in abundance in seeds, roots and tubers. Consists of only glucose molecules. Two kinds of starch molecules: amylose and amylopectin. Amylose has a linear chain structure. Amylopectin has a highly branched structure. Most natural starches consist of mixtures of amylose and amylopectin. Normal starch consists of 25% amylose and 75% amylopectin. Starch granules swell when heated in water - a process called gelatinization. Gelatinization is responsible for the thickening that occurs when a starch pudding or sauce is cooked. See Figure 7 and Figure 8 in your textbook B. Dextrins (Homoglucans) are polysaccharides that are derived from starch. Produced commercially when starch molecules are partially broken down by enzymes, acid or dry heat (a process called dextrinization). Formed from cornstarch when corn syrup is made
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