the milk prior to canning. In Canada, evaporated milk is fortified with vitamins D and C.
Sweetened condensed milk: a canned product where approximately half of the water content is
evaporated out of the milk prior to canning and to which a high percentage of sugar is added
Ultra high temperature (UHT) milk: the milk is heated for approximately 2-6 seconds at 300F to
remove all viable microorganisms (i.e., the product is sterile)
Skim milk powder: the water content of the milk is removed, first through the use of a vacuum and then
by spray drying (see unit 2 for more information about drying methods). This form of milk can be used in
baked good and can be added to water to reconstitute fluid milk.
Eggs have an outer shell, and have 2 major inner parts – the egg white and the egg yolk
The shell is about 94% CaCO with small3pores that allow CO and water to escape,2while allow O in. 2
They contain protein, fat, vitamins, minerals and a small amount of carbohydrates, with the yolk
containing the fat and cholesterol and most of the calories (75%), while the white is the more protein-rich
Major protein of the egg is ovalbumin, also find conalbumin, ovomucoid, lysozyme and avidin
Major proteins of the yolk are the lipoproteins – high density lipoproteins and low density
Functional Characteristics of Eggs
Emulsification: lipoproteins and phospholipids present in the egg yolk help to keep fat dispersed in water.
Used in products such as mayonnaise, salad dressings, sauces (like hollandaise and béarnaise), ice
cream and some cakes
Foaming: proteins in the egg white have a high capacity to form strong protein films that surrounds air bubbles
to produce stable forms. The foams can become six to eight time the original volume.
Used in foods such as soufflés, fluffy omelets, meringues and some cakes (e.g., angel food).