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Chapter 8

PSYC 2290 Chapter 8: Chap 8_Intelligence and Individual Differences in Cognition

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University of Manitoba
PSYC 2290
Jocelyn B.Proulx

Child development Chapter 8 Intelligence and Individual Differences in Cognition - Verbal ability - the ability to speak clearly and articulately 8.1 What is Intelligence? Psychometric theories: - Psychometrician are psychologists who specialize in measuring psychological characteristics such as intelligence and personality - If changes in performance on one psychological tests are accompanied by changes in performance on a second test then the tests appear to measure the same attribute or factor - Charles Spearman reported findings supporting the idea that a general factor for intelligence, or G, is responsible for performance on all mental test - Other researchers have found that intelligence consists of distinct abilities, identified seven distinct patterns, each reflecting a unique ability : perceptual speed, word comprehension, word fluency, space, number, memory and induction - John Carroll introduced the hierarchical theory with three levels : - At the top of the hierarchy is G, general intelligence - In the middle level are 8 broad categories of intellectual skill • Fluid intelligence refers to the ability to perceive relations among stimuli • Crystallized intelligence, for example, comprises of persons culturally influenced accumulated Knowledge and Skills, including understanding printed language, comprehending language, and knowing vocabulary - Carroll’s hierarchical theory : General versus distinct abilities - some critics still find it unsatisfactory because it ignores the research and theory on cognitive development described in chapter 6 and 7 - they believed we need to look beyond the psychometric approach to understand intelligence Gardener's Theory of Multiple Intelligence : - Rather than using test scores as the basis for his theory, Gardener Drew on Research in child development, studies of brain damage persons and studies of exceptionally talented people - He identified seven distinct intelligences when he first proposed the theory in 1983 See table 8.1 • the first 3 intelligences in the list - linguistic intelligence, logical mathematical intelligence and spatial intelligence - are included in psychometric Theories of Intelligence. • The last 6 intelligences are not - musically, bodily kinesthetic, interpersonal, intrapersonal, naturalistic and existential intelligences are unique to gardeners theory. 1. linguistic intelligence develops much earlier than the other eight 2. each intelligence is regulated by distinct regions of the brain, as shown by studies of brain damage persons - Spatial intelligence is regulated by particular regions in the brain's right hemisphere 3. each has special cases of talented individuals - Emotional intelligence, which is the ability to use one's own and others emotions effectively for solving problems and living happy • People who are emotionally intelligent tend to have more satisfying interpersonal relationships, have greater self-esteem and be more effective in the workplace Implications for education Child development Chapter 8 - Gardner believes that schools should foster all intelligences, rather than just the traditional linguistic and logical mathematical intelligence, and that teachers should capitalize on the strongest intelligences of individual children Sternberg’s theory of successful intelligence - He began by asking how adults solve problems on intelligence test - He defines successful intelligence as the skillful use of one's ability to achieve one's personal goals - In achieving personal goals, people use three different kinds of abilities: 1. Analytic ability: involves analyzing problems and generating different solutions - it involves thinking of different solutions 2. creative ability: dealing adaptively with novel situations and problems 3. Practical ability: Knowing what solution or plan will actually work • Hypothesis: creative ability scores should be unrelated to practical ability scores and both should be unrelated to analytic ability scores • Conclusion: intelligence includes analutic, creative and practical ability, but these may not be completely independent as Sternberg had proposed initially • Application: - Child with strong analytic ability: may find algebra simpler when the course emphasizes analysis and evaluation - child with strong practical ability: maybe at his best when the material is organized around practical applications - Each culture defines what it means to be intelligent, and the specialized Computing skills of vendors and Navigators are just as intelligent in their cultural settings as verbal skills are in North American culture  See summary table 8.2 Measuring Intelligence: Binet and the Development of Intelligence Testing : - Back then, with the increase in number of school children, how to identify which children would most benefit from schooling and which would be likely to have difficulties with some major problem - Binet and Simon introduced the concept of mental age or MA - which referred to the difficulty of the problems that children could solve correctly - a child who solve problems that the average seven-year-old could pass, would have an MA of 7 - They used mental age to distinguish bright from dull students  Bright = MA of an older child  Dull = MA lesser than their age - to clarify the issue of what the test results meant about intellectual ability, Terman described performance as an intelligence quotient, or IQ, which was simply the ratio of mental age to chronological age(CA), multiplied by hundred  IQ = (MA / CA) X 100 - Another test used frequently for 6 to 16 year olds is the wechsler intelligence scale for children 4 (WISC-4) infant tests - The Stanford binet and WISC-4 cannot be used to test intelligence in infants - for this purpose, many psychologists use the bayley scales of infant development - it is designed for 1 to 42 month olds, the Bayley scales consist of 5 scales : Cognitive, language, motor, social-emotional and adaptive Behavior Stability of IQ scores: - Not until 18 or 24 months of age do infants IQ scores Predict later IQ scores Child development Chapter 8 - because, infant tests measure more emphasis on sensory motor skills and less on task involving cognitive processes such as language, thinking and problem solving - In fact, habituation, does predict later IQ more effectively than do scores from the Bayley - The average correlation between habituation and IQ in childhood is approximately .5 - Infant who habituate to visual stimuli more rapidly tend to have higher IQs as children and adults - Researchers and Healthcare prof
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