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Chemistry (92)
CHEM 392A (8)
Chapter 5

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University of Waterloo
Richard Ennis

THERMOCHEMISTRY 51 CHANGES IN MATTER AND ENERGY Thermochemistry the study of the energy changes that accompany physical or chemical changes in matter HEAT AND ENERGY CHANGES Thermal energy energy available from a substance as a result of the motion of its molecules Chemical system a set of reactants and products under study usually represented by a chemical equation Surroundings all matter around the system that is capable of absorbing or releasing thermal energy Heat the amount of energy transferred between substancesq Exothermic releasing thermal energy as heat flows out of the system Endothermic absorbing thermal energy as heat flows into the systemtemperature average kinetic energy of the particles in a sample of matterOpen system one in which both matter and energy can move in or out ex Explosive reaction Isolated system an ideal system in which neither matter nor energy can move in nor out cannot completely isolateClosed system one in which energy can more in or out but not matter MEASUREING ENERGY CHANGES CALORIMETRY Calorimetry the technological process of measuring energy changes in a chemical system Specific heat capacity quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of a unit mass of a substance 1C or 1KHEAT TRANSFER AND ENTHALPY CHANGEChemical systems have many different forms of energy kinetic and potentialMoving electrons within atoms The vibration of atoms connected by chemical bondsRotation and translation of molecules that are made up of these atoms Nuclear potential energy of proton and neutrons in atomic nucleiElectronic potential energy of atoms connected by chemical bonds Enthalpy change H the difference in enthalpies of reactants and products during a change the energy absorbed from or released to the surroundings when a system changes from reactants to products H system q surroundings Physical changes Energy is used to overcome or allow intermolecular forces to act Cindy Shen 1Page
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