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GERON/HLTH220: Textbook Notes for Lecture 3

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University of Waterloo
HLTH 220
Linda Jessup

Lecture 3 –Lifespan and Health Textbook: Lifespan Development: A Topical Approach 2 Edition Modules 4.1, pages 140-153 4.1. Stress and Coping - What are the main causes and consequences of stress, and how do people cope with stress? Origins of Stress  Primary appraisal—the individual’s assessment of an event to determine whether its implications are positive, negative or neutral  Secondary appraisal—the person’s answer to the question, ―Can I handle it? –an assessment of whether the coping abilities and resources on hand are adequate Stress varies with the person’s appraisal and that appraisal varies with the person’s temperament and circumstances The Consequences of Stress  Psychoneuroimmunology (PNI)—the study of the relationship among the brain, the immune system, and psychological factors o Examined the result of stress to be hormones secreted by the adrenal glands cause a rise in heart rate, blood pressure, respiration rate, and sweating o Continuous exposure to stressors may reduce the body’s ability to deal with stress. Hormones are constantly secreted; the heart, blood vessels, and other body tissues may deteriorate.  Some schools’ reading programs have become so intense that some children are simply burning out  Experience of failure—and of competitive pressure to be at the top of the class—is hitting children at younger ages than before. Some educational experts fear that the social and emotional development of children taking a back seat to literacy education, and that the pressure, the testing, the accelerated programs, and the time spent in school  Adolescent  go to bed earlier, leaving them sleep-deprived. Sleep-deprived teens have lower grades and greater risk for auto accidents. Wear and tear of fighting off stress can have formidable costs: headaches, backaches, skin rashes, indigestion, chronic fatigues, and even the common cold  Eating disorders are a result of such stressful situations as perfectionist, over demanding parents or other family difficulties  Declining strength and energy, frequent loss of memory and a feared decrease in intelligence or sexual passion  Psychoneuroimmunologist –scientists who study the relationship between the brain, the immune system, and psychological factors  increased blood pressure and hormonal activity to decreased immune system response and often engage in unhealthy behaviours, such as cutting back on sleep, smoking, drinking, or taking other drugs and less likely to seek out good medical care, to exercise, or to comply with medical advice o Psychosomatic disorder, medical problems caused by the interaction of psychological, emotional, and physical difficulties  Coping with Stress o Problem-focused coping –managing a threatening situation by directing changing it to make it less stressful o Emotion-focused coping—the conscious regulation of emotion o Social-support—assistance and comfort supplied by others  Defensive coping –involves unconscious strategies that distort or deny the true nature of a situation o Emotional insulation, though which people unconsciously try to block emotions and thereby avoid pain.  Hardiness is a personality characteristic associated with a lower rate of stress-related illness  Resilience is the ability to withstand, overcome, and even thrive after profound adversity o Are easygoing and good-natured, with good social and communication skills Threats to Wellness and Health - Behavioural Problems  increasing number of children are being treated with drugs for emotional disorders such as depression - Accidents  injury as from an illness requires medical attention. There are also high levels of physical activity, curiosity, and lack of judgement = accident prone - Safeguarding the Childhood Environment  ―child-proofing‖ electrical outlet covers and child locks on cabinets, car seats and bike helmets - Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is a disorder in which seemingly healthy infants die in their sleep. Threats to Adolescents - Illegal drugs  pleasurable experience they supposedly provide, to escape the pressures of everyday life, thrill of doing something illegal o Addictive drugs are drugs that
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