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Chapter 1

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SOC 101
Barry Mc Clinchey

DEFINITIONS 1. Binary Thinking Using either/or between structure/agency 2. Traditional Society Irrational authority 3. Modern Society Human mind discovers true knowledge (enlightenment) 4. Social solidarity Generate agreement and consensus among people 5. Functionalism To identify basic functions to fulfill in society 6. Anomie No single code of right or wrong People more individualised in the west 7. Organic solidarity The individual is the organ of a much larger organism 8. Proletariat Wage workers who came from country to city 9. Alienation Separation of things that go together 10. Formal rationality Ascertaining most efficient means to achieve objectives 11. Traditional authority When societies follow existing customs 12. Charismatic authority Charismatic leaders influence the masses 13. Verstehen Need to understand someone subjectively 14. Microsociology To explain the social world by examining how individuals perceive it 15. Intersubjectivity How people orient their behaviour to what they think others think SOCIOLOGISTS 1. Antonio Gramsci Everyone is a social theorist 2. Mills Sociology must address social problems by linking individual and how society is organized 3. Augustus Comte  Father of sociology, but life took downward turn & refuted  Combined real life obs. with logical systematic thought where natural laws made the world orderly and predictable  Created social thinking stages a. Social thinking 1. World is run by supernatural powers stages 2. Religion  philosophy 3. Apply scientific knowledge to nature laws 4. Herbert Spencer Positivism Believed society was a struggle for existence 5. Jean Baudrillard Modern individualism is expressed by participating in mass consumption (1998) 6. Pierre Bourdieu  Examined ways people get power and control 7. George Ritzer  Mcdonaldization – spread of rationality on global economy  Tastes and preferences impact our place in society 8. Dorothy Smith  Feminists should research from the women’s standpoint of everyday exper. 9. Emile Durkheim  Most famous French sociologists in 20 century  People don’t have a collective conscience  Source of togetherness: gift giving & sacred gathering  People experience collective effervescence  spirituality  Society examined as interconnected parts  Anomie & organic solidarity o Anomie can be beat by telling people to respect others’ individuality 10. Max Weber  Rationality is important change in modern society  bureaucracy  Solely religion based (religion change  capitalism)  Formal rationality  Traditional vs. charismatic authority  Rational arguments are ineffective when against irrational beliefs  Verstehen  Protestant reformation lead to capitalism  Modern capitalism created a middle class with higher salaries & autonomy
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