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Chapter 3

ADM 2337 Chapter Notes - Chapter 3: Ontario Human Rights Code, Organizational Culture, Canadian Human Rights Act

Course Code
ADM 2337
Magda Donia

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Chapter 3
Equity and Diversity in Human Resources Management
Employment equity means employment of individuals in a fair and
nonbiased manner.
The implementation of employment equity has involved establishing policies
and practices designed to ensure equitable representation in the workforce
and to redress past discriminations.
There are 4 designated groups in Canada (recognized in the federal
Employment Equity Act) that have not received equitable treatment in
o!Women, visible minorities, aboriginal people and
persons with disabilities face significant disadvantages
in employment.
o!Some of these disadvantages include high unemployment,
occupational segregation (discrimination), pay inequities, and
limited opportunities for career progress.
o!Women tend to be concentrated in occupations that are
accorded lower status and pay.
o!Women are underrepresented as semi-professionals and
technicians, as supervisors in trades, in natural and applied
sciences, in management positions and as members of
o!Female earnings lag behind those of men.
o!Retention Strategies for companies for women:
!!1. Equal pay for work of equal value
!!2. Flex schedules accommodating women with childcare
and eldercare responsibilities
!!3. Forty-hour workweeks
!!4. Part-time and job sharing – ideal for new mothers
!!5. Mentoring by a senior manager to help her develop a
career strategy
!!6. Focus on family schedule
!!7. Offer learning opportunities
o!The unemployment rate for Aboriginals in Canada is higher
than the national unemployment rate.
o!Very less % of aboriginals have a university degree.

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!!Employment rates tend to rise with higher educational
o!Many aboriginal people face major barriers to employment,
which are often compounded by low educational achievement
and lack of job experience, as well as by language and
cultural barriers.
o!In urban centres, many Aboriginal workers are concentrated
in low-paying, unstable employment.
o!Economic self-sufficiency and participation in the economy are
seen as essential to Aboriginal development.
o!Aboriginal values such as cooperation and consensus
(agreement) decision making have become more closely
aligned with management approaches.
o!1 in 7 Canadians have a disability.
o!People with disabilities face attitudinal barriers, physical
demands that are unrelated to actual job requirements, and
inadequate access to the technical and human support
systems that would make productive employment possible.
o!Employers can seek to redress attitudinal barriers by focusing
on abilities, not disabilities.
o!If a candidate with disability comes in for an interview, the
manager should ask him/her if they need assistance.
o!Visible minority groups vary in their labour force profiles and
in their regional distribution.
o!Studies have shown that Latin Americans and Southeast
Asians experience lower-than-average incomes, higher rates
of unemployment, and reduced access to job interviews, even
when they have the same qualifications as other candidates.
o!Systematic barriers that negatively affect employment for
visible minorities include culturally biased aptitude tests, a
lack of recognition of foreign credentials, and excessively high
language requirements.
o! It contributes to the bottom line by broadening the base of
qualified individuals for employment, training, and promotions
and by helping employers avoid costly human rights
o!Employment equity enhances an organization’s ability to
attract and keep the best-qualified employees, which results
in greater access to a broader base of skills.

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o!It also enhances employee morale by offering special
measures such as flexible work schedules and work sharing.
o!It improves the organization’s image in the community.
!The Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, the federal Canadian
Human Rights Act, and pay equity and employment equity acts are
the governing pieces of legislation dealing with employment equity.
o!The constitution act of 1982
o!Is it the cornerstone of equity legislation
o!The Charter guarantees some fundamental rights to every
Canadian, including:
o!Fundamental freedoms
o!Democratic rights
o!Mobility rights
o!Legal rights
o!Equality rights (s. 15) – gaurenteeing no discrimination by
law on the grounds of race, ethnic origin, colour, religion, sex,
age, sexual orientation, marital status, citizenship, Aboriginal
residence, or mental and physical ability.
o!Language rights
o!Although the Charter has offered many Canadians
opportunities with regard to their own individual rights and
responsibilities, it has also been a source of disappointment.
!!Governments can weaken the collective bargaining
process by limiting salary increase, legislating strikers
back to work, and imposing compulsory arbitration.
!!The Charter does not protect the right to bargain
o!The Charter protects only the right of government and
public-sector employees, not private-sector employees.
o!The act proclaims that every individual should have an equal
opportunity with other individuals to make for himself or
herself the life that he or she is able and wishes to have.
o!The act applies to all federal government departments and
agencies, to Crown corporates, and to other businesses and
industries under federal jurisdiction, such as banks, airlines,
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