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Chapter 4

ADM 3321 Chapter Notes - Chapter 4: Cognitive Dissonance, Abraham Maslow, Drive Theory

Course Code
ADM 3321
Michael Mulvey

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Chapter 4
Motivation and Affect
The forces that drive people to buy or use products are generally
In some cases emotional responses create a deep commitment to the
Sometimes people are not even fully aware of the forces that drive them
toward some products and away from others.
Often these choices are influenced by the person’s values – his or her
priorities and beliefs about the world.
To understand motivation is to understand why consumers do what they do.
We do everything for a reason.
Marketers need to discover what consumer needs are and why do they exist
in order to satisfy them.
The Motivation Process
Motivation: the processes that cause people to behave as they do.
It occurs when a need is aroused that the consumer wishes to satisfy.
Once a need has been activated, a state of tension exists that drives the
consumer to attempt to reduce or eliminate the need.
This need may be utilitarian (desire to achieve something functional or
practical benefit), or it may be hedonic (experiential need involving
emotional responses or fantasies).
The desired end state is the consumer’s goal.
Marketers try to create products and services that will provide the desired
benefits and permit the consumer to reduce this tension.
Whether the need is utilitarian or hedonic, a discrepancy exists between the
consumer’s present state and some ideal state.
The magnitude of this tension determines the urgency the consumer feels to
reduce the tension.
This degree of arousal is called a drive.
A basic need can be satisfied in a number of ways, and the specific path a
person chooses is influenced by his or her unique set of experiences and by
the values instilled by the culture in which the person has been raised.
These personal and cultural factors combine to create a want, which is one
manifestation of a need.

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Once the goal is attained, tension is reduced and the motivation recedes (for
the time being).
Motivation can be described in terms of its strength, or the pull it exerts on
the consumer, and its direction, or the particular way the consumer attempts
to reduce motivational tension.
The degree to which a person is willing to expend energy to reach one goal
as opposed to another reflects his or her underlying motivation to attain that
People have some finite amount of energy that must be directed toward
certain goals.
2 basic theoretical categories that account for motivational strength are:
Drive Theory
Drive theory focuses on biological needs that product unpleasant state of
arousal. E.g. Grumbling stomach when hungry.
We are motivated to reduce the tension caused by this physiological arousal.
Tension reduction has been proposed as a basic mechanism governing
human behaviour.
In marketing, tension refers to the unpleasant state that exists if a person’s
consumption needs are not fulfilled.
This state (e.g. hunger) activates goal-oriented behaviour that attempts to
reduce or eliminate this unpleasant state and return to a balanced one,
called homeostasis.
Those behaviours that are successful in reducing the drive by eliminating the
underlying need are strengthened and tend to be repeated.
A person’s degree of motivation depends on the distance between his or her
present state and the goal.
However, people often do things that increase a drive state rather than
decrease it.
E.g. people may delay gratification: not eating all day before “all you can eat
Expectancy Theory
Most current explanations of motivation focus on cognitive factors rather
than only biological ones to understand what drives behaviour.

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Expectancy theory suggests that behaviour is largely pulled by
expectations of achieving desirable outcomes – positive incentives – rather
than pushed from within.
E.g. money or social status.
Motives have direction as well as strength.
They are goal-oriented in that specific objectives are desired to satisfy a
Most goals can be reached by a number of routes, and the objective of
marketers is to convince consumers that the alternative they offer provides
the best chance to attain the goal.
Needs vs. Wants
The specific way a need is satisfied depends on the individual’s unique
history and learning experiences and his or her cultural environment.
The particular form of consumption used to satisfy a need is termed a want.
Types of Needs
Biogenic needs
!People are born with a need for certain elements necessary to
maintain life, such as food, water, air, and shelter.
Psychogenic needs
!Acquired in the process of becoming a member of a culture
!Need for status, power, affiliation, etc.
!Reflect the priorities of a culture, and their effect on behaviour will
vary in different environments.
Utilitarian needs
!Consumers will emphasize the objective, tangible attributes of
!E.g. the amount of calories in a burger
Hedonic needs
!Subjective and experiential
!Leading consumers to rely on a product because it meets their
needs for excitement, self-confidence, or fantasy, perhaps to
escape the mundane or routine aspect of life.
Consumers may be motivated to purchase a product because it provides
both types of benefits.
!E.g. LV bag
Motivational Conflicts
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