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ADM4346 (10)
Chapter 3

Chapter #3, 4.docx

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University of Ottawa
Sheldon Weatherstone

Chapter 3: Systems Documentation Techniques What is Documentation? • Set of documents and models o Narratives, data flow models, flowcharts • Describe who, what, why, when, and where of systems: o Input, process, storage, output, and controls Why Should You Learn Documentation? • You need to be able to read documentation in all its forms: narratives, diagrams, models. • You need to be able to evaluate the quality of systems, such as internal control based in part on documentation. • SAS 94 requires independent auditors to understand all internal control procedures. o Documentation assists in auditor understanding and documentation of their understanding • Sarbanes-Oxley states that management: o Is responsible for internal control system o Is responsible for assessing the effectiveness of the IC System o Both management and external auditors need to document and test IC System Data Flow Diagrams • Graphically describes the flow of data within a system • Four basic elements o Entity o Data Flow o Data Store o Process Entity • Represents a source of data or input into the system or • Represents a destination of data or output from the system Data Flows • Movement of data among: o Entities (sources or destinations) o Processes o Data stores • Label should describe the information moving Process • Represents the transformation of data Data Store • Represents data at rest Data Flow Diagram Levels • Context o Highest level (most general) o Purpose: show inputs and outputs into system o Characteristics: one process symbol only, no data stores • Level-0 o Purpose: show all major activity steps of a system o Characteristics: processes are labeled 1.0, 2.0, and so on DFD Creation Guidelines • Understand the system • Ignore certain aspects of the system • Determine system boundaries • Develop a context DFD • Identify data flows • Group data flows • Number each process • Identify transformational processes • Group transformational processes • Identify all data stores • Identify all sources and destinations • Label all DFD elements • Subdivide DFD Flowcharts • Use symbols to logically depict transaction processing and the flow of data through a system. • Using a pictorial representation is easier to understand and explain versus a detailed narrative. • There could be an identified that is put on to see who is accessing it, and who is changing it • Flowchart Symbol Categories o Input/output o Processing o Storage o Miscellaneous Types of Flowcharts • Document o Illustrates the flow of documents through an organization o Useful for analyzing internal control procedures • System o Logical representation of system inputs, processes, and outputs o Useful in systems analysis and design • Program o Represent the logical sequence of program logic Chapter 4: Relational Databases Data Hierarchy • Field o Attributes about an entity • Record o Related group of fields • File o Related group of records • Database o Related group of files Advantages of Database Systems • Data Integration o Files are logically combined and made accessible to various systems. • Data Sharing o With data in one place it is more easily accessed by authorized users. • Minimizing Data Redundancy and Data Inconsistency o Eliminates the same data being stor
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