Outsourcing; businesses move manufacturing and service centers to countries
where labour is cheap
The world is flat by Thomas Friedman says that global economy offers exciting
opportunity for entrepreneurs with the requisite skills.
Globalization, Terrorism, and climate change and demographics all make up all
issues that make up the changing world.
Terrorism; is not a particular ideology but is a set of strategies that involves the
use of unpredictable violence against individuals that thus creates ongoing fear
and suspicion among large groups of people.
Demographics refer to statistical descriptions of characteristics of a population.
Things like age, race income, educational attainment and so on.
o Consider distributions of the characteristics of people and to look at those
distributions in a comparative sense across either time or location.
Organization; five critical features;
o 1. The existence of a social collectivity
o 2. Organizational and individual goals
o 3. Coordinating activity
o 4. Organizational structure
o 5. Embedding of the organization within an environment of other
service organizations; giving out a particular service rather than a manufacturing a
nongovernmental organizations; NGOs are important in coordinating processes of
change in first and third world nations
cooperatives (coops); often motivated by a concern for democracy, social justice,
and environmental and global responsibility.
Virtual organizations; organizations on the web.
Social organizations; fraternities and sororities or even families and groups of
Organizational communication must be approached with an appreciation for
paradox, irony and contradiction.
SMCR model; which a source transmits a message through a channel to a
receiver. Example; supervisor (source) asking for volunteers to work on the weekend (message) through an email (channel) sent to all of the employees
Metamodel; an overarching way of thinking about communication
Robert Craig; 1999; seven domains of thinking about how communication works
in the world
Human relations; spotlight is on the individuals needs
Human resources; spotlight it is on the role of employees as valued contributors to
o classical management (Fayal)
o scientific management (taylor)
o theory of bureaucracy (weber)
o Cybernetics (bodyfeedback loop)
o New science
o karl weick’s theory of organizing
o Deal and kennedy (strong cultures)
o Peter and waterman (excellent cultures) o Schein’s model of culture (onion)
o Traditional approach to power
o Symbological approach to power
o Radical critical approach to power
o Leader member exchange theory
o House’s pathgoal theory
o Direct – indirect
o Reflective listeners content oriented listeners
Classical approach; goal oriented, power structured,
Critical approaches; libertarian, analytical
Systems; progress focused, emergence
Theory of classical management (fayal); father of operational management theory,
core of his work helps divide origins into functional units, looks into technical
skills (know your job), human skills (people relations) conceptual (creative)
o 5 elements of management; planning organizing, commenting,
coordination, controlling (poccc)
o 6 principles of management; scale of chain, unity of command, division of
labour, order, direction, span of control (cccodc)
o power attitude reward (PAR); Power of order (responsibility to
employees), rewards (equity not equality, get paid for what you do and
hours put into it, benefits etc.)
Theory or Bureaucracy (weber); defined hierarchy, division of labour,
centralization of decision making/power; vertical coordination of authority,
explicit set of rules, file making and written documents, job as ones primarily
activity. Employees should always be appointed and never elected. There are three
types of authority;
1. traditional; just having position/title, power to influence employees
2. charismatic; personality and charisma is rate to achieving what they