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Chapter 5

HSS1101 Chapter 5: Eating for Optimal Health and Performance

Health Sciences
Course Code
HSS 1101

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Chapter 5: eating for optimal health
Hunger: the feeling associated with the physiological need to eat
Appetite: the desire to eat; often more psychological than physiological
The appetite is a learned psychological desire to eat whether we are hungry or not
oCan be triggered by proximity of food, smell or taste of food, time of day, special
occasions, emotional comfort, nutritional value etc.
oFinding the right balance between eating to maintain body function and eating to satisfy
our appetite and or cultural needs is a problem for many (prevalence of obesity rates in
the pop)
Today, eating 3 large meals a day with a sedentary lifestyle will lead to weight gain and fat gain
oBusy lifestyles and social pressures such as family traditions influence quality and
quantity of dietary intake
Traditional Mediterranean diet found in Spain, southern France and Italy, Greece, Turkey etc.
typically includes lots of bread and other cereal products, vegetables and fruits, fish, cheese, olive
oil, tree nuts and wine
Food is flavoured with a lot of spices and not many meats are consumed
oDesserts are sweet but intake is very small
oTypes of drink is a hot drink (coffee)
This diet has been associated with lower coronary heart disease
oThought that this dietary pattern may be protective against cancer
Typically includes rice as its staple cereal and main source of energy
The consumption of vegetables, fruit, and fish varies upon prosperity
Herbs and spices are used for flavouring
Tea is the traditional hot drink
Diet overall tends to be low in fat and in sugar
oLower rates of obesity, type 2 diabetes, some types of cancer and coronary heart disease
Industrialized food system
Traditional diet is energy dense and includes more processed foods

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Traditional diet includes: large amounts of meats, milk and milk products, fatty and or sugary
foods (baked goods), and alcoholic drinks
oA typical dinner plate consists of large meat serving, potatoes and vegetables or mass
amounts of pasta with meat sauce
oLow intake of fruits in veges is common in Western cuisine
oDietary intake tends to be high in calories, fat, sugar and low in fibre
Typical western diet is associated with obesity, greater risk of type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular
disease, stroke, some cancers and chronic diseases
Trend towards poultry (white meat) and more vegetable and fruit intake
Nutrition: is the science that investigates the relationship between physiological function and the
elements of food we eat
Nutrient: the constituents of foods that sustain us physiologically; water, proteins, carbs, fats, vitamins,
Calorie: a unit of measure that indicates the amount of energy obtained from a particular food
Monitoring Calories
Canadians consume more calories per person per day than people in many other parts of the
oCalories are eaten in the form of proteins, fats, and carbs (3 main nutrients essential for
o3 other essentials are vitamins, minerals and water that do not contribute to calorie intake
even though they are essential to sustain life
Excess calorie consumption is a major factor in gaining weight
oAlso how much nutrients is in the calories that we eat and physical inactivity
Canadian adults diet break down:
o16-18% protein
o50-56% carbs
o29-31% fats
This is all close to the recommended levels for their specific age/sex group
Dieticians have begun to consider dietary intake in comparison to meeting the Acceptable
Macronutrients Distribution Range (AMDR)
oWhen considering the AMDR, almost 100% of Canadians meet the their needed protein
o32% M and 21% of Females are below the recommended carb intake

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o25% of M and 23% of F had fat intake above the AMDR
It is the high concentration of fats (animal fats-saturated) and trans-fats that put Canadians at risk
for cardiovascular disease and cancers and processed sugars which heighten type 2 diabetes and
tooth decay
Canada’s Food Guide
In 1942 was when it was first introduced
oThe main objectives were to promote healthy eating, prevent nutritional deficiencies, and
improve the health of Canadians while recognizing the impact of wartime on food
oHas changed its name and format and is now called Eating Well with Canada’s Food
Guide (2007)
The most recent food guide was created because it was important to ensure that (1) promote a
pattern of eating to meet nutrient needs (2) promoted health (3) minimized the risk of nutrition
related chronic diseases
In revising the Food Guide, Health Canada worked with these groups:
oExternal group called Food Guide Advisory Committee, which was 12 people
representing the public health, health policy, nutrition education, disease prevention,
industry and communication
oAn Interdepartmental Working Group of 13 representatives from several federal
departments from which changes to the Food Guide would have an impact
oAn Expert Advisory Committee on Dietary Reference Intakes consisting of 11 appointed
The newest version of the Food Guide is intended to help a broader age range of Canadians, since
it can be applied to anyone 2+ years
oDescribes a pattern of eating sufficiently to meet nutrient needs
oDescribes a pattern of eating that reduces the risk of nutrition related health problems
oDescribes eating pattern that supports achievement and maintenance of healthy body and
oDescribes eating patterns that reflects diverse foods available to Canadians
oSupports Canadian’s awareness and understanding of what constitutes a pattern of
healthy eating
oEmphasizes healthy eating and regular physical activity are important for health
Rainbow pattern emphasizes that we need to eat more of some groups of foods than others and
shows measurements per sex and age
The Digestive Process
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